Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The definition of Small & Medium scale Enterprises (SMEs) varies from country to country. The classification can be based on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s assets, number of employees, or annual turnover along with the loan amount. Central Bank of Sri Lanka defines SMEs as enterprises with less than Rs. 600 million turnover per annum and with a maximum exposure of Rs. 200 million mainly to be classified as a SME for Basel II Capital adequacy calculation and utilization of funds accumulated in the Investment Fund Account in Banks. Whatever the definition, and regardless of the size of the economy, the growth of SMEs throughout the region is crucial to growth of respective economies. Because, SMEs play a critical and important role in providing job opportunities, enhancing the quality of human resources, maximizing the use of local resources, saving foreign exchange, nurturing a culture of entrepreneurship, fostering creativity and opening up new business opportunities etc. Most corporate organizations in Sri Lanka or elsewhere are the establishments started as SMEs in its early stages. Classic examples from our own country may be Nawaloka Group, Access International, Softlogic Group of companies. In most literature, it is mentioned that access to financing has been recognized as a major impediment for many SMEs and its growth, whereas corporate business entities have the advantage over the SMEs in doing so primarily as a result of their formalization. However, according to Juliet Mckee and Kimball Dietrich (2003), most common problems for SMEs are the lack of access to market information and technology, the low quality of human resources and the lack of access to capital. Despite efforts by financial institutions and public-sector bodies to close funding gaps, SMEs continue to experience difficulty in obtaining risk capital. These funding gaps relate to firm size, risk, knowledge, and flexibility. The development literature focus a good deal of attention on issues faced by SMEs in accessing finance. Traditionally, the focus is on obstacles created by financial institutions, mainly by commercial banks or on imperfections in the broader institutional environment. However, SMEs also make decisions about financing and display attitudes that have an important bearing on financing decisions. Therefore, constraints may also appear on the Ã¢â¬Å"demand sideÃ¢â¬ of the financing market. Objective of this article is to discuss the key challenges and issues for bankers pertaining to SME lending, of which, part of them are inherent in SMEs and for others bankers are responsible. 1. Issues of SMEs 1. 1 Lack of financial literacy or weak financial literacy In the literature, lack of financial literacy is designated as informational asymmetries where SMEs typically posses privileged information on their business that cannot be easily accessed or cannot be accessed at all by lenders or outsiders. Reasons for this may vary and also have different perspectives. SMEs are mainly driven by entrepreneurs who have nurtured in their own ways to prospective SMEs. As a result of hard ways of development, they either had no time to devote further education or do not believe in learning. This is evident from the credit applications that are submitted to banks for financing. This eventually leads to low levels of financial literacy among entrepreneurs. Financial literacy is the ability to understand how money works in the world: how someone manages to earn or make it, how that person manages it, how he/she invests it (turn it into more) and how that person donates it to help others. More specifically, it refers to the set of skills and knowledge that allows an individual to make informed and effective decisions with all of their financial resource. Though many SME owners are sound in developing business models and working out the profitability of products and services, understanding about the macro picture of the SMEÃ¢â¬â¢s overall financial standing in terms of profit and loss account, balance sheet and cash flows is week. As a result, they sometimes opt to resort to outsiders or merely depend on themselves in preparation of financial information which may or may not reflect the actual picture of the SMEs. Because of this impediment, banks have no choice, but to depend on collateral for SME financing. At the backdrop cash flow lending is encouraged, financial institutions are struggling to project the SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ sustainable bankability. This is recognized as the main obstacle for banks and financial institutions in financing SMEs. One of the options to counter this impediment is the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"Para accountantÃ¢â¬ . A Para accountant is an external consultant who uses finance, economics, risk management and technology skills to help organizations prepare and report financial and tax statements according to accounting principles and regulatory requirements. A Para accountant also may review a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s internal controls, processes and procedures to ensure that such controls are adequate. A Para accountant may work on a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s site or remotely. They are not necessarily qualified accountants, however, might be an option. BankersÃ¢â¬â¢ prime objective in this endeavor is to develop reliable sources of information so that they could project the sustainable cash flows of the business. With this objective banks could train their credit appraisal officers as Para Accountants, who will interacts with prospective SMEs and develop a set of financial information while strengthening the banking relationship over a period of time. 1. 2 EntrepreneursÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge about building a prospective banking relationship A banking relationship is about much more than just selecting a bank to handle a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s bank accounts. If the relationship is managed well, it can help a company to thrive. SMEs that use more than one bank will need to manage multiple banking relationships. A company will first have a business account (or several) at a retail bank (or banks) for all day-to-day financial transactions. Whether it is retail, SME or corporate, the banks should have a team of business banking advisers on hand, to advise and guide a company. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to ensure continuityÃ¢â¬â banks usually offer a contact with a designated person and in turn expect to deal with the same person or persons from the company. A good banking relationship depends not only on personal rapport, but also by having a solid understanding of the company and its financial needs. Over time, a banking adviser should build up a good understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred ways of doing business and incorporate that into how their banking requirements are handled. There are many advantages having a sound banking relationship for SMEs. The bank is more likely to offer loans and other lines of credit, potentially at preferential rates of interest, if the bank advisers feel there is a good relationship with the company. The bankÃ¢â¬â¢s advice can be tailored for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and personal style, rather than given generically. In times of crisis, a company having its bankÃ¢â¬â¢s support will be crucial. Even if a company is a text-book case of insolvency, strong personal rapport with a company representative means that the bank is more likely to offer leeway if it knows that directors are doing their utmost to keep the company going. Failure to develop a strong relationship, however, means that the SME is likely to miss out on good advice and, crucially, support in times of difficulty. However, unfortunately, many SMEs are not on the right track to understand the importance of having a good banking relationship. Given that no sound financial information are available, at least, SMEs should try to maintain a healthy customer relationship with the financial institution to entice financial needs, especially in difficult periods. It is both BankersÃ¢â¬â¢ and SMEsÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility of developing a prospective banking relationship over a period of time without compromising risk capital. More than the credit facilities, credit plus would be reasonably appropriate to start such a relationship and then move into advanced levels of relationships along with credit facilities. 1. 3 Financial discipline of entrepreneurs As Henry Ford correctly cited, Ã¢â¬Å"Wealth does not come accidently. You have to plan for it. Ã¢â¬ OneÃ¢â¬â¢s discipline explains the right behavior and ability to take decisions without emotions. Hence, financial discipline is all about right financial decisions. In order to be financially discipline one should understand concepts of accounting and financial management in SME business. Accounting in general is all about record keeping and developing summary financial reports. Most commonly available financial reports or information are the profit and loss account, balance sheet and the cash flow statement. Unless SMEs keep records of their daily activities, it is difficult to develop financial statements with regard to their businesses. With no financial statements, SMEs will always struggle in making financial decisions. More often, there is no clear distinction between the business finance and the finances of the proprietor. Therefore, it is critical that the lender examines carefully borrowerÃ¢â¬â¢s all commitments, i. e. , those related directly to the business and those associated with the proprietorÃ¢â¬â¢s private life and assets. Lack of Business Planning is a result of weak financial indiscipline in SMEs where investment decisions, working capital decisions, even pricing decisions are based on the entrepreneursÃ¢â¬â¢ values than on facts. The lack of proper financial discipline results in incorrect business decisions, which hampers the sustainability of the SMEs. MacRobert (2002), in his SME manual explains why SME borrowers are different to commercial and corporate borrowers. One of the common reasons is unskilled/ untrained principals. Many SME principals in the Asia-Pacific region are self-starters, often with limited formal education, and minimal training in business management skills. That is not to say that they are incompetent, but that they often lack the capacity to research information on ways to strengthen their businesses, and, indeed, to be aware that such resources even exists. Role of the bankers in this regard is to educate the importance of financial discipline through strong banking relationships. Bankers are one of the key sources, to get SMEs to believe in financial discipline. Bank officers should take the initiatives in this endeavor to educate the SME owners. Role of the Government is also a key imperative in developing required conducive environment through institutional and policy frameworks. Some universities in Sri Lanka have already started dedicated departments to teach courses related entrepreneurship. (Example: University of Sri Jayewardenepura and University of Colombo) and It is important to note that Business studies is part of the GCE A/L curriculum. Recent budget proposals in 2011, 2012 and 2013 has given enough support to encourage SMEs and SME financing and one of the very useful proposals was to direct government banks to set up dedicated SME Branches not only to facilitate SMEs with easy access to finance, but also to educate SME owners and to guide and direct them to right places and people. However, strengthening the institutional framework to develop business development support services is also an imperative. 2. Issues with Banks SMEs are not only critical to the economy, but also to the banksÃ¢â¬â¢ profitability. Most diversified banks maintain a substantial percentage of exposure to the SMEs as a strategic investment given the diversity within the SME portfolio itself. It is always profitable, but need to properly evaluate and closely monitor the delinquencies to avoid any credit risks. It is a perception as well as a fact sometimes, that SMEs are always highly risky as explained by many banks. It may be due to several factors including, non availability of financial information, no tax returns, no collateral, one man show, highly sensitive to economic conditions, no proper organizational structure, and many more. These are reasons given to avoid or very conservative underwriting of SME credit proposals. As a result of these reasons, credit policies of financial institutions are based on stringent credit guidelines. 2. Institutional framework with hindering process issues In the case of many developing countries, the above mentioned obstacles to SME financing are exacerbated by institutional and process factors. Most developing countries are still highly concentrated and have uncompetitive banking sectors. This reinforces the tendency to adopt conservative lending policies. Credit policies which mainly cover the credit risk and market risk, endorse a processes which covers many elements to secure exposure, while satisfying the regulatorÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements. This eventually results in a value driven Credit culture in financial institutions. According to MacDonald and Timothy (2006), managementÃ¢â¬â¢s credit policy determines how much risk the bank will take and in what form. A bankÃ¢â¬â¢s credit culture refers to the fundamental principles that drive lending activity and how management analyzes risk. There can be large differences in their lending philosophy. The three potentially different credit cultures are: values driven, current profit driven, and market share driven. The institutional framework is reflected through the credit policy in this part of the world, the tendency is to inculcate a value driven credit culture, which has the following attributes: Focus is on credit quality with strong risk management systems and controls Primary emphasis is on bankÃ¢â¬â¢s soundness and stability and a consistent market presence Underwriting is conservative and significant loan concentrations are not allowed. Typical outcome is lower current profits from loans with fewer loan losses It is evident with lower non- performing ratios prevailing in banks justifies that credit risk is covered with loan risk mitigation factors and discourage granting venture capital to SMEs. Eventually, SMEs need to resort to acceptable securities which hinders them from easy access to finance from financial institutions. 2. 2 Collateral syndrome (Risk avert) Strong value driven credit cultures in financial institutions always tighten the belts in covering credit risk. Unless the financial institutions develop competencies in cash flow based lending, credit officers have no choice but to cover themselves with collateral in risky SME lending. Competencies itself will not drive the business unless the risky lending is rewarded with challenging business targets. Security based lending propositions are gradually becoming unhealthy for economies as it discourages strategically important investment decisions. Government of Sri Lanka recently enacted legislations to ease the pressure on SMEs through amendment of Parate execution where normal civil procedure of debt recovery should be applied for loans below Rs. five million with security of property mortgages. 2. 3 Weak competency in building cash flow based lending propositions Strong value based credit policies encourage security oriented lending and creates knowledge gaps in credit officers. Security oriented lending does not require strict cash flow projections and credit evaluations. Developing cash flow projections is an art and requires overall knowledge about the industry, technology, external factors (external climate) and specific firms (internal climate) along with econometrics modeling to analyze the cash flows. When it comes to large projects, knowledge in project appraisals and risk analysis will help the credit officers to get exposed to project financing. At the backdrop of investor confidence and developing businesses in emerging economies, venturing into risky business propositions is in the agenda of the banking and financial intuitions. Financing SMEs are risky but at the same time profitable, so indeed banks need to develop how best they could mitigate the risk of these ventures. One of the options is to gradually develop a culture of SME financing with confidence through development of competencies in their credit officers. Competency development not only addresses econometric techniques of analyzing and evaluating the credit proposals, but also industry knowledge and exposure, experiences of sick industries and business units, world politics and world economics, knowledge in emerging markets and technologies, behaviors and issues of labor, understanding the entrepreneurship etc. Conclusion Many of the literature examine the issues of financing SMEs world over. However, there are key issues not only from the SMEs point of view, but also from the financial institutions and, governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s point of views. No one can expect the SMEs to nurture in best practices all by themselves. In this regard, the role of financial intuitions is greater, when it comes to inculcate and nurture SMEs in the right directions. The issues for SME financing discussed above are the keys, but there are many others which needs further discussions.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Business Ã¢â¬â General Business 1. Learning Team Assignment: Production Plan for Riordan Manufacturing Ã · Write a paper of at least 1,050 words discussing strategic capacity planning and lean production for the new process design and supply chain process for the electric fans at Riordan. Ã · Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Whatever financial assistance package pays for your first year should not be set and then forgotten. Revisit your opportunities every semester. Picking up work-study vacancies, part-time jobs on campus and getting department scholarships can all replace loans to reduce your post-graduation obligations. Never take out a loan your first year and then run it out all through college if you can get better money. This file OPS 571 Learning Team Assignment Production Plan for Riordan Manufacturing Part 4 4 includes overview of the following parts: Production Plan for Riordan Manufacturing New Process Design Lean Production Supply Chain Process Conclusion Business Ã¢â¬â General Business 1. Learning Team Assignment: Production Plan for Riordan Manufacturing Ã · Write a paper of at least 1,050 words discussing strategic capacity planning and lean production for the new process design and supply chain process for the electric fans at Riordan. Ã · Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. Whatever financial assistance package pays for your first year should not be set and then forgotten. Revisit your opportunities every semester. Picking up work-study vacancies, part-time jobs on campus and getting deparÃ¢â¬ ¦ A+ tutorial you will find here Ã¢â¬â https://bitly.com/12CiYCx Whatever financial assistance package pays for your first year should not be set and then forgotten. Revisit your opportunities every semester. Picking up work-study vacancies, part-time jobs on campus and getting department scholarships can all replace loans to reduce your post-graduation obligations. Never take out a loan your first year and then run it out all through college if you can get better money. Business Ã¢â¬â General Business 1. Learning Team Assignment: Production Plan for Riordan Manufacturing Ã · Write a paper of at least 1,050 words discussing strategic capacity planning and lean production for the new process design and supply chain process for the electric fans at Riordan. Ã · Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.
Outline the guidelines, procedures and codes of practice relevant to personal work? (1.1.1) Follow a set routine so you donÃ¢â¬â¢t make any mistakes. Confidentiality. Explain the purpose of planning work, and being accountable to others for own work? (1.1.2) Throughout the day I will always find out what job is the most important for me to do first and do my other work afterwards. Any delay in the important jobs could impact on someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s work e.g. (Every hour we have to go online and collect VBSÃ¢â¬â¢s for the drivers otherwise they cannot get on the docks to empty or load their container which delays them from their next job meaning it impacts on their work.) Explain the purpose and benefits of agreeing realistic targets for work? (1.1.3, 1.1.4) It gives a good working practice and gives you something to aim for. Describe types of problems that may occur during work and how would you seek assistance in resolving problem? (1.1.8, 1.1.9) Part of my job is dealing with PODÃ¢â¬â¢s and it is important that I chase for outstanding ones otherwise we cannot prove the delivery of container was made which could delay payment or some other issues like insurance claims. Explain the purpose and benefits of recognising and learning from mistakes? (1.1.10) One of the mistakes I have done could have lost the company money but luckily it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. The way I have learnt from this is because I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t very careful but now I take more precautions e.g. checking twice when sending out invoices so I donÃ¢â¬â¢t send it to the wrong person. Explain the purpose and benefits of agreeing and setting high standards for own work? (1.2.1, 2.1.1) The benefits for setting high standards for your own work means that it is always done to the best of your ability. Describe ways of setting high standards for work? (1.2.2) * Making goals and sticking to them. * Writing a list of what needs to be done. * Aiming to do certain things by a certain time/day. Explain the purpose and benefits of taking on new challenges if they arise? (1.2.3) It means I get to learn more about the company and interact with everyday tasks; I will be more involved and have a lot more options. Accounts, PODÃ¢â¬â¢s and traffic sheets are some examples of what I would do which also gives me more option in the future. Explain the purpose and benefits of adapting to change? (1.2.4) Sometimes change can make things more efficient and easier to complete tasks. Explain the purpose and benefits of treating others with honesty, respect and consideration and what types of behaviour show this and what ones donÃ¢â¬â¢t? (1.2.5, 1.2.7) Good behaviour * Friendly * Considerate * Confident Bad behaviour * Being unmotivated * Refusing to do work * Being cold towards other employees Explain why behaviour in the workplace is important? (1.2.6) Being friendly to others makes it a comfortable and relaxing atmosphere to work in meaning there are no uncomfortable and awkward moments so you can enjoy being at work. Explain the purpose and benefits of encouraging and accepting feedback from others? (2.1.2) Shows you where your good and bad flaws are and what you can improve on. Explain how learning and development can improve own work, benefit organisations and identify career options? (2.1.3) It can improve your own knowledge and make you understand your job role better. Describe possible career progression routes and development opportunities? (2.1.4, 2.1.5) I could possibly work in a bank or something with accounting as an option which would be a potentially good career or I could stay in this area of work. Describe what is meant by diversity and why it should be valued? (3.1.1) Diversity refers to the fact that we are all different. Diversity should be appreciated and valued because nobody is the same as anyone else. Describe how to treat other people in a way that is sensitive to their needs? (3.1.2) You should be kind and be caring towards people. Look out for their needs as you would like them to look out for yours. Treat others how you would like to be treated. Describe how to treat people in a way that respects their abilities, background, values, customs and beliefs? (3.1.3) DonÃ¢â¬â¢t judge anyone by their race, religion systems, mental capabilities, physical appearance. Get to know them before you take judgement on them. Describe ways in which itÃ¢â¬â¢s possible to learn from others at work? (3.1.4) You can watch how they act with certain people e.g. you learn different mannerisms and personalities. Describe the purpose and benefits of maintaining security and confidentiality at work, what are the company and legal requirements and how do you deal with any concerns? (3.2.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.2.4) Confidential information is only allowed to be looked at by your employer and other staff but not to be discussed outside of work as this could breach your contract. Explain the purpose of keeping waste to a minimum? (3.3.1, 3.5.2) It is better for the environment. Describe the main causes of waste that may occur in a business environment? (3.3.2) I would say paper is the most common cause of waste the business as there is so much information to take down, re-write and make notes. It is all recycled though. Describe ways to keep waste to a minimum? (3.3.3, 3.5.1, 3.5.2) Recycle and reuse. Identify ways of using technology to reduce waste? (3.3.4) * Shredder * Moving paper files on to the computer * Using a compost pot for wasted food Outline the purpose and benefits of recycling and what are your organisational procedures? (3.3.5, 3.3.6) Reduces carbon footprint and pollution Describe the benefits and procedures and organisational procedures for the recycling and disposal of hazardous materials? (3.4.1, 3.4.2) The benefits of recycling can be extremely beneficial to all different things. The only hazardous object we have that we recycle is the toner from our printer and it goes when a man picks it up to recycle and give to a charity. Explain reasons for knowing the purpose of communication? (4.1.1) The purpose of communication is to understand each other and connect. Communication is the means in which information is circulated. Explain the reasons for knowing the audience to whom the communication is being presented? (4.1.2) You modify your presentation style to suit the audience so you get optimum results. Describe the best methods of communication and when to use them? (4.1.3, 4.1.4) 1. In person Ã¢â¬â for an immediate response to your question/query 2. Telephone Ã¢â¬â when you are not near the person you wish to receive information but would like a quick response. 3. Email Ã¢â¬â when you are replying to a request and need to send them something or when you need something sent to you. Identify different sources of information that may be used when preparing written communication? (4.2.1) Websites on the internet, a dictionary and previous correspondents could be used to prepare written communication. Describe the communication principles for using electronic forms of written communication in a business environment? (4.2.2) It is environmentally friendly and easier to use. Describe the reasons for using language that suits the purpose of written communication? (4.2.3) You use different languages to address the matter in the right context for example; informal or formal letters/emails. Describe ways of organising, structuring and presenting written information so it meets the needs of the audience? (4.2.4) PowerPoint presentations can be very good for presenting and gives you a lot of room for information. You can use a wide range of different effects that make the information look more interesting. Describe ways of checking for the accuracy of written information and the purpose of accurate use of grammar, punctuation and spelling? (4.2.5, 4.2.6) If you are using the computer you can use spell check on almost any document to make your grammar correct. Explain what is meant by plain English, and why it is used? (4.2.7) Plain English is a general term for communication styles that emphasise clarity, brevity and the avoidance of technical language. The intention is to write in a manner that is easily understood by its target audience: appropriate to their reading skills and knowledge, clear and direct, free of clichÃ © and unnecessary jargon. Explain the need to proofread and check written work? (4.2.8) In case you have made any mistakes or your work doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense. Explain how to identify work that is important and work that is urgent? (4.2.9) Urgent means as soon as possible and important means take a little more time and care over it but do it quickly. Describe organisational procedures for saving and filing written communications? (4.2.10) We scan all the documents so there is always a back up file on the computer and then we file the paperwork into a folder and archive. Describe ways to verbally present information and ideas clearly? (4.3.1) Use number points, examples and be clear when presenting information. Explain ways of making contributions to discussions that help move them forward? (4.3.2) Always ask questions, recap information and listen carefully.
Monday, July 29, 2019
MARKETING PLANNING; The international market place - Case Study Example This has been through given customers value for their money and offering cheaper products. Since it was established the company set out goals of becoming strong food and nonfood earlier in the UK market. Since then it has grown to be the largest online retailer in the world with more that 1 millions customer in the word. The company also set goal of diversifying its operations in the external market and a 30% of the stores are found out side the UK. The company also set out a goal of having the more loyal a committed staff in all its operation. In the international market the company has been using same strategies as it has been using in the domestic market although it has not tended to be more personal than in the domestic market. The company has been using direct marketing approach in the internal market same as it has been done in the local market. What have been the features of the international marketing strategy First it has been implementing direct marketing strategy with the aim of reaching the consumers in their homes. This has been enabled through the implementation of on line marketing in all its stores. This strategy has been focused on ensuring that consumers have access to the products of the company from their homes and that the process is simple and easy. Online marketing has been one of the most effective ways that has been used by the company to reach all customers in the international market. Through the strategy, the company can sell its products to all the consumers in the world. This strategy was first tested in the local market and has been extended in the international market. Tesco has been able to rise to become the leading online retailer in the UK. After a success initial start, the company has been able to expand its operation to all its new branches. Therefore the international marketing approach that has been used by the company has been direct marketing with a special focus to providing consumer with quality products in order to meet the basic aim of marketing. The company has been opening shops in different places in order to make sure that it meets the needs of the consumers. The company has also been using personal selling strategy to reach all the potential market. Through the strategy the company has been selling directly to the consumers. Though it has not been carrying out persons to person communication, the company has been engaging in promotion activities that are aimed at reaching all consumers.Q2. A comparison of the international and domestic marketing mix decisions within the organization There has been no much difference between the company domestic market and international market approaches. The same approaches that the company has been carrying out in the domestic market have also been employed in the international market as well. This has been due to the fact that there is similarity in all the market according to its line of operation. In this regard the company has been carrying out marketing approaches which have been aimed at selling the same products to the consumers. The company has been using a marketing approach which has been aimed at reaching its customer in the extern market. The similarity in the approaches used by the company in both market is because it has been using similar trend as has been observed in the market. Based on its
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Teaching of Ethics and Humanity in USA and Indonesia - Essay Example This cultural value is highly evident in the education systems of the Universities in USA and Indonesia as they give very high emphasis to Human Values, Respect for others and Ethics in their education systems. Example, Seattle University practices the Jesuit Tradition which requires that the students should be made aware of the importance of what they need to do with the knowledge that they are in the process of acquiring. Similarly, Santa Clara University teaches moral thinking and decision making following the Utilitarian Approach, Rights Approach, Fairness Approach, Common-Good Approach, and the Virtue Approach. The Indonesian Universities teach Humanity, Respect for others and Ethics as well but the lessons imparted are more from the perspective of Religious teachings. As a matter of fact, Islamic and Buddhist education has prevailed quite strongly due to their strong influence on the society. Span and Quality of Education in USA is much better th... They prefer to expose their students to the real world challenges of the subject of choice. Example, the education in Finance & Accounting would not be limited to subject matter learning only but would also incorporate a number of surveys/researches required to be carried out by students even at the undergraduate level. When compared to education system in USA, the width & depth of education system in Indonesia is not comparable to the same in USA. Indonesia education system is based on improving subject matter expertise in technology whereby their applicability is sharply focused on the potentials of global competitive advantages that the country can derive out of such expertise. In this context, the teachers in Indonesia are definitely good experts but more focused towards the coverage of the subject than the applicability of the subject. Example, if the subject matter is networking the teachers would ensure that the entire concepts of network technologies are covered for the students at tremendous pace but fewer opportunities shall be opened to work on live networking projects. Expression of thoughts in USA is more freely allowed than in Indonesia (Thesis 3): USA believes in conversion of Tacit Knowledge into Explicit for the benefit of the future of Mankind. Hence, they tend to develop this culture in the educational system as well. The students in USA need to express their thoughts in class and in group discussions. Example, seniors discuss their internship experiences in open forums such that the juniors can avoid their mistakes when planning for their own internships. In addition to self expression, the Universities also give lot of emphasis in developing the writing skills of the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
SKILLS AND LEARNING STATEMENT (SLS) Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words
SKILLS AND LEARNING STATEMENT (SLS) - Assignment Example With further discussions, I chose HDFC (Housing Development and Finance Corporation) India as the bank on which my RAP will be focused. The bank had currently undergone an ICT innovation initiative for improving its performance and increasing its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s base (Rajan, 2010). My objective was to evaluate the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s performance before and after the introduction of the integrated multichannel in its operations. In the meeting with my project mentor, we discussed my strengths and weaknesses. I discovered that I was technically strong in literature writing however I was worried about the project analysis .With the help of my mentor, I outlined the structure of the project and he suggested ways to acquire information about the research project. According to him, the RAP should have a suitable structure, illustrative, conciseness, clarity with factual accuracy. Before my second meeting with my mentor, I was prepared with the draft of my project. My project was almost over an d I was just left with the conclusion and recommendation part. After going through the draft of my RAP, my mentor identified some errors on the referencing and Part one of the RAP. According to my mentor, the drafted RAP does not fully explain the reasons for choosing my project topic area and neither provided him with an understanding of the overall framework. He guided me with more information and asked me to make amendments but assured me that the overall approach of the project was satisfactory. He assured me the timetable I have been following is good enough to meet my project deadline. The reassurance and encouragement that the project approach is going on the right direction, helped my confidence. In third meeting with my mentor, I gave a presentation of my project. Before this meeting I had already provided my mentor with the draft of my RAP. This meeting included a 15 minutes presentation. The presentation helped overcome my fear of speaking in public and enhanced my orator y skill. I am an introvert and often stay behind in companyÃ¢â¬â¢s meetings. I was overcome with fear during the presentation to my mentor and his partner. In the presentation, my mentor recommended some changes. He advised me to keep the language totally business-oriented without use of colloquial terms. The language had to be lucid as well as professional. My mentor commented on my nervousness. There were certain changes he recommended for example, the colour combination, referencing, structure, evidences and outcomes. He mentioned that timing is an important factor to consider in presentations. The presentation enhanced my communication skills and made me learn how to conduct while presenting a project- one should be aware of the right gesture, facial expression and stances. The presentation enabled me to exercise introspection and I am now confident that I can take a lead in office meetings. 2. How well do you think that you have answered your research question(s)? While doing the RAP I had proposed four research questions. Research questions are very important, as they determine the formal aim of the study. The research questions formulated by me clearly stated what the study is going to investigate and efforts had been made by me to address the questions properly. The first proposed research question is Ã¢â¬Å"
Friday, July 26, 2019
Cloud Computing - Research Paper Example The reason for the study of Ã¢â¬Å"cloud computingÃ¢â¬ is to have a detailed insight into the history, significance, fundamentals, components, systems, methodologies, and implementation, and more related to cloud computing. This paper achieves this purpose by first discussing the history of cloud computing, followed by the discussion of its ramifications in the technology world, development of the system and its security, and relationship between agile software development and cloud computing. The history of cloud computing Although there is subjectivity about the exact time when the term cloud computing surfaced, yet it appears to have originated from the use of the stylized clouds drawings for the denotation of the networks in the diagrams of communication systems and computing. Ã¢â¬Å"CloudÃ¢â¬ as a word is often used for the Internet metaphorically. The Internet is being represented by the symbol of a cloud since 1994. Since the prevalence of computers, technologists and scientists have been exploring ways to increase the availability of the power of large-scale computers to the users by means of such ways as experimenting with the algorithms for the maximal use of infrastructure, sharing of time, and the optimal use of applications and platform with the prioritized access to the central processing units. The Ã¢â¬Å"Dynamic WebÃ¢â¬ describes the process of development of the Internet from being just document centric toward its increased ability to render different kinds of services. This contribution particularly focused on the need for the meta-data that could describe the implementation details as well as other conceptual details of the applications based on model. The omnipresence of the high-capacity networks, storage devices, computers of low cost, utility computing, and the widespread adoption of the service-oriented architecture, and hardware virtualization are some of the most fundamental factors that have caused the growth of cloud computing. People involved in cloud computing include J.C.R. Licklider, John McCarthy, and Douglas F. Parkhill. Licklider brought the cloud computingÃ¢â¬â¢s concept to the forefront. McCarthy proposed that computation would be organized as a public utility in the future. Parkhill comprehensively discussed all the contemporary features of cloud computing in his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Challenge of the Computer UtilityÃ¢â¬ (Banerjee, 2011). Hurdles in the development and implementation include but are not limited to flawed predictions of cost savings, increase in the cost of operation, lack of ability to comply with the requirements of growing capacity, chargeback, bandwidth, and scarcity of trained professionals in cloud computing. Another major hurdle is the security concern; the available offerings of cloud are public networks and hence increase the vulnerability of the system to the attacks. Ramifications of cloud computing in the technology world 1. Mobile communication The recent advances in the networks of mobile communication and the increasing popularity of the smart phones have empowered the users and caused a massive transformation in the mobile Internet. Nevertheless, the limited capabilities of information storage and computing of the mobile devices have traditionally served as big hurdles in the way of supporting the
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Paranoid Personality Disorder - Research Paper Example This paper reviews eccentric personality disorders as well as PPD. It reflects upon the therapy used in treating PPD and a measurement device that is employed to diagnose it. The last part of the paper summarizes a research conducted on personality disorders. Personality disorders are still not understood in detail; ironically they are some of the most common mental illnesses that individuals are diagnosed with. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) group personality disorders into three main groups: eccentric, dramatic and anxious. Cluster A encompasses eccentric personality disorders and include paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal. These three personality disorders have some common features amongst them. These symptoms are also often seen in schizophrenia. People with these disorders appear to be cold and eccentric. They start showing symptoms of eccentric personality disorders from early adulthood and when exposed to different situations such as work, home etc. People with schizoid personality disorders show little interest in social relationships and do not have a lot of expression. Moreover, they tend to be cold and indifferent to others. Schizotypal personality disorders are characterized by symptoms of not having close relationships, and supporting peculiar beliefs and flat emotions. PPD are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs. PPD are characteristic of individuals who are highly unsuspicious of other people. They tend to consider the actions of other people as threatening. The causes of PPD are not yet known; however it is believed that the PPD occur as a result of combination of psychological and biological elements. Studies have shown that PPD is more common in individuals who are genetically related to schizophrenic people. This genetic connection between schizophrenia and PPD is suggestive of some common cause. It has also been seen that physical and emotional traumatic
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
International business - Essay Example nalysis will seek to draw a level of definition to each and state the ways and means by which they are both separate yet at the same time intricately related. With relation to international business, this is an activity that takes place on what can be understood as a micro level. In this sense, key players within the private sector engage in exchange of goods and services which directly mirror the same process that occurs on a national and/or domestic level. In this way, one can understand that role that individuals, managers and other shareholders hold within this level of transaction as being the most important; with the roles of politicians only being tangential or secondary as long as no barriers to exchange exist (Buckley 2009, p. 330). With relation to the term international trade, this encompasses the activities that have previously been discussed within the preceding paragraph detailing international business activities. For this reason, the international trade definition is something of a catch all definition which all of the activities of international business and the tangential and related aspects thereof are included. Moreover, when one discusses the term international trade, there is a level of emphasis that must necessarily placed on the role that politicians play with regards to regulating the flow of trade between two or more countries (Rasche 2012, p. 681). Although this same type of regulation is exhibited within international business, the term international trade necessarily implies a more macro view of the system as opposed to one that is purely focused upon a more micro approach. The fact of the matter remains that trade and international business are in effect two sides of the same coin. Regardless of the level of differentiation that can ultimately be discerned, the true differentiation that is most recognizable is the involvement of the key players within the process. Due to the more macro view of international trade, the level
LUPUS - Term Paper Example lupus is Ã¢â¬Å"a chronic inflammatory diseaseÃ¢â¬ that appears when the immune system of a person attacks different tissues and organs (Mayo Clinic, n.p). The inflammation that is considered to be the result of lupus affects different body systems (Mayo Clinic, n.p). It is possible to name joints, skin, kidneys, blood cells, brain, heart and lungs (Mayo Clinic, n.p). Lupus is remained to be an autoimmune disease as it is connected with the irregular functioning of the immune system. The matter is that healthy immune system protects the organism of a person from foreign germs by making antibodies (Ginzler and Tayar, n.p.). In a case of lupus the immune system works differently and Ã¢â¬Å"instead of producing protective antibodies, an autoimmune disease begins and makes "autoantibodies," which attack the patients own tissuesÃ¢â¬ (Ginzler and Tayar, n.p.). A huge number of damages for the organism of a person are appeared in such a way. As a result an inflammation in different body systems appear. It is relevant to admit that sometimes lupus can be difficult to diagnose as this disease has a number of general features that can be interpreted as some other disease. However, there are some specific features that are peculiar for this illness. It is possible to include fatigue, skin rashes, hair loss, joint aches and pains, dry eyes, depression and kidney problems to the general symptoms of lupus (Hughes, 9). In addition, Ã¢â¬Å"the inflammation of tissues covering internal organsÃ¢â¬ in considered to be one more general feature of this disease (Hughes, 9). Considering all these symptoms it is possible to find out some specialties that are peculiar for lupus. Skin is regarded as one of the commonest organs affected by lupus (Hughes, 13). People who suffer from this disease have an extremely sensitive skin and therefore they suffer from different rushes, mosquito bites and sun (Hughes, 13). Butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and nose is considered to be peculiar for this
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
The Art of Negotiation - Ethical or unethical behavior - Assignment Example However, environmental factors including government laws, religion, and the entire community influence ethical behaviors (Ugwu, 2011). The inherent factors present differences in knowledge, believes, and values that makes it extremely impossible to define ethical and unethical behavior. The difficulties experienced in pinpointing unethical or ethical behaviors with business community directly relates to determination of fairness. Every organization has a culture that defines their fairness standards based on individual variables, influential external factors, and established practices (Tugend, 2012). Consequently, determination of fairness remains inherently difficult mainly due to the aforementioned difference in believes and values based on experiences or cultures. In determining whether a behavior is ethical, a negotiator must ensure fairness for both parties. Fairness acts as the most amicably strategy in determining ethicality of a behavior. Besides, a negotiator should ensure that contrary cultures, believes, values, and practices remains neutralized to kelp establish a common moral ground. The negotiatorÃ¢â¬â¢s determination should remain acceptable and in the best interest of the entire society. Tugend, Alina .( September 21, 2012). Doing the Right Thing, Whatever That Is. The New York Times. Web. January 26, 2014. Retrieved from
Monday, July 22, 2019
Fast Food Essay Do you like to eat fast food Nowdays peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives are becoming faster and faster. Because of a tight schedule, many people decide to eat fast food. Fast food is a western food. Fast food refers to any poor nutrition food that is easily prepared. Fast food may include chips, hot pies, sandwiches, burgers, kebabs, pizzas, soups, and salads. It also includes drinks, for instance, milkshakes, and soft drinks. Fast food has advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages of fast food are that fast food is cheap, time saving, and quick. Fast Food Saves Time People can order fast food on their way to or from work, without ever leaving their car, which is drive thru. Fast food is also designed to come in small packaging, So that people can consume it while traveling. Light on the Wallet Its means Eating fast food can save a lot of money for large families, students and anyone else looking to eat out without breaking the bank. Many fast food chains offer discount menus with foods costing. Customers also avoid having to leave a tip when they choose a fast food establishment over a typical restaurant. Easy to find place Some of the most popular fast food chains include McDonalds, KFC, Burger King, Pizza Hut, Dunkin Donuts, and many more. Despite of having many advantages, fast food has many disadvantages including obesity and different kinds of diseases. Obesity Extra calories can lead to being overweight or obese. As we know children nowadays like to eat fast food. So the percentages of obesity among children increase from year to year. With obesity come other problems like high blood pressure, the increasing of cholesterol and other related diseases of the heart that can lead to heart attack and many more serious diseases. Fast food has advantages and disadvantages. Some of the advantages are that it is easy, quick, and inexpensive. On the other hand, some of the disadvantages are that it causes obesity and different kinds of diseases. Eating fast food is like playing with our health and if we lose our health neither the money, nor the time can get it back.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Effects of the Gardasil Vaccination Obispo, Stacey L. Vaccinations Despite the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) acknowledging vaccinations as one of top 10 impressive public health accomplishments of the twentieth century (Malone Hinman), vaccines have still been cause for debate over the years. Fears over the years have resonated over vaccination risks and side effects. Sadly, parental unacceptance of general childhood vaccinations may have been persuaded from accepting incorrect beliefs (Gamble, Klosky, Parra, Randolph, 2010). For example, the early childhood vaccination measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) was of recent controversy because many believed it caused autism (Gamble, et al., 2010). Gamble, et al. (2010) found that this controversy along with some vaccines inability to be fully successful with some recipients has contradicted vaccine effectiveness. As a result some parents within the public question whether all vaccinations which have risks will outweigh the benefits. Today I implore all parents to listen to the research and s cientifically proven information I am going to share about vaccines so that your questions about its effectiveness can be put to rest. In addition, I will share with you pertinent facts that you should know about the vaccine Gardasil so that you can make an informed choice as to whether you should get your child vaccinated. Balancing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual rights with the rights of society to prevent their own illness versus the need for public health officials to prevent large scale epidemics should be thoughtfully considered. Today we can easily say that societal interest has conflicted with some parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interest. This occurs because in our society vaccinations are taken in efforts to not just aid the child from disease and illness rather, it is done to protect and prevent diseases and illnesses from the whole community. The way to balance individual rights with the rights of society regarding preventing individual illness and large scale epidemics is by modeling the practices of the US government regarding vaccinations. The CDC states that some individuals argue that every adult with an s sound mental capacity should have the right to choose what should be done to their body (Malone Hinman). The CDCÃ¢â¬â¢s response to such an argument was directed to the Supreme Court ruling on Jacobson vs. Massachusetts which upheld the rights of states to mandate vaccinations (Malone Hinman). The rationale behind the court ruling was this: As long state wide vaccinations exist because of the need to prevent outbreaks of disease individual rights should not be held .The idea that one should have a choice in regard to their own being cannot be upheld because each being affect others .In other words, as long as humans remain social creatures , personal privacy and choice in regards to required vaccinations cannot exist. Each individual makes up a whole community. The ruling concluded that if all individuals had the choice to choose whether or not they should be vaccinated public health and public safety can becom e endangered when epidemics arise (Malone Hinman). The ruling on Jacobson vs. Massachusetts is enacted to ensure that through vaccinations disease prevention is granted to everyone. The ruling allowed states to have police power regarding vaccinations (Malone Hinman). With police power, states are then empowered by the Constitution to make sure those rationale guidelines that were recognized by legislative depiction as will safeguard public health and safety ruing empowered states (Malone Hinman). Another way states make sure that its constituents are getting vaccinated is through mandating school laws and prohibiting school enrollment to children who have not been vaccinated(Malone Hinman). States have the authority to assert authority of the welfare of a child (Malone Hinman). This is called parens patriae. Under this doctrine the Supreme Court states that there are no rights of religion or parenthood that are beyond limitation (Malone Hinman). Furthermore, the Justices state that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s right to practice religion freely does not give one the liberty to expose the child or community to communicable disease, ill health, or even death (Malone Hinman). Despite these safe guards that our government has enacted, there is exemptions that are offered for individuals who elect not to get vaccinated. Currently 48 states have exemption laws which ensure that religious and in some cases philosophic beliefs are protected and allow such individuals to be excluded from vaccinations (Malone Hinman). Although these individuals have no constitutional rights under religious or philosophic beliefs, states allow these individuals to practice their freedoms (Malone Hinman). This delicate balance appears to be working well since their has been an growth in numbers of vaccines being presented with a majority of the public taking them and a commonly low level of observable risk from disease (Malone Hinman). The vaccine Gardasil protects against precancerous lesions, such as CIN1/2/3,VIN2/3, cervical cancer triggered by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18, and it also is a defense against infection and disease produced by HPV6 and11 as well as genital warts (Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). The age of Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices state that the HPV vaccination is targeted for females aged 11 and 12 years through the series of 3 injections given over 6 months (Gamble, et al., 2010).Boys ages 9-26 can be given the vaccination to prevent genital warts caused by the HPV (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). The vaccine is approved to be given to girls, boys, women and men that are within the ages of 9-26 years (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014) . The vaccine Gardasil is intended for administration before sexual onset (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). The HPV virus can be transmitted through: oral and digital infection by digital Ã¢â¬âgenital contact or genital digit al contact, vaginal and anal intercourse (Gamble, et al., 2010). The Gardasil vaccine prevents spread of HPV. Around 70% of sexually active people will contract the Human Papillomavirus within their lifetime (Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). The HPV genotypes 16 and 18 have been accountable for approximately 73% of cervical cancers as well as the bulk of HPV-related vulval and vaginal cancers (Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). In addition 90% of genital warts affecting men and women are HPV 6 and 11(Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). The vaccine Gardasil prevents the transmission of HPV 16 and 18, HPV 6 and 11, and cervical cancers(Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). On the individual level the impact of contracting HPV can be devastating because in some cases genital warts develop or even cancers (Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). This can effect not just the quality of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual life but their life expectancy because in some cervical cancer remains undiagnosed until itÃ¢â¬â¢s too late for treatment. The decline of HPV can only be accomplished by targeting the cariogenic types of HPV, making sure the protection is resilient, targeting the appropriate at risk population, and by ensuring that the medical community and public adhere to the recommended screening guidelines(Gamble, et al., 2010).In fact the American Cancer society estimates that 70% of cervical cancers can be prevented if HPV vaccinations are given over several decades(Gamble, et al., 2010). The most common side effects associated with HPV vaccine Gardasil include: fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, headache ,fever, and at the injection site; pain, swelling ,itching, bruising, and redness (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). Like all vaccinations there can be an allergic reaction. Signs of an allergic reaction include: difficulty breathing, rash hives, and wheezing (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). Inform your childÃ¢â¬â¢s doctor if after vaccination they have: chills, skin infection, bleeding or bruising more than normal, swollen glands, joint pain, unusual tiredness, overall feeling of being unwell, pain in the leg, shortness of breath, chest pain, aching muscles, or seizure. (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). Remember the vaccine Gardasil has been evaluated and approved for use by the FDA and safety is continually evaluated by the CDC for safety on an ongoing basis (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). Psycho-social impacts of whether the Gardasil vaccination will be utilized is associated with doctors recommendations, parental views and adolescences attitudes (Gamble, et al., 2010). Health care attitudes and recommendations by doctors impact families because their views influence whether an individual will get vaccinated with Gardasil. For instance, if the pediatricians attitude and intention is to promote the HPV vaccine research has shown that they will have a successful delivery(Gamble, et al., 2010). The choice as to whether a parent will immunize their child can be influenced by their cultural beliefs and also by a parents view or personal factors regarding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to HPV(Gamble, et al., 2010). Research documented by Gamble, et al., (2010) states that parents who make the decision to vaccinate against sexually transmitted infections are inclined to do so based on their personal beliefs and their adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes about contraception use. Parents who have open communication regarding sex with their child have the tendency to vaccinate against HPV(Gamble, et al., 2010).Adolescent attitudes regarding HPV vaccination have been found to be similar to parental views(Gamble, et al., 2010). A concern that may arise from some parents who may consider giving their adolescent the vaccination is; will the vaccination give my child permission to become sexually active because they have been vaccinated against HPV? According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (2013) research studies demonstrate that children who receive the HPV vaccine do not engage in sex any sooner than those who have been given other teen vaccines. Essentially the findings indicate that children do not see the HPV vaccine as a license to engage in sexual activity (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013). In conclusion, parents vaccinating your children with Gardasil will not make them prematurely sexually active. The benefits of taking Gardasil can lessen their risks at cancers and genital warts. This preventive vaccine has the potentially to reduce cervical cancers by 73% and vulvular cancers by 50%. The side effects associated with taking Gardasil are no different than other vaccines your children have already been given. Being uncomfortable about having a conversation about HPV and sex should not deter anyone from getting their child vaccinated. The benefits of being vaccinated are far too great to the individual and society as a whole to let a moment of being uncomfortable potentially dictate an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life expectancy. Facts about Gardasil and HPV The vaccine Gardasil protects against precancerous lesions, such as CIN1/2/3,VIN2/3, cervical cancer triggered by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV)16 and 18, and it also is a defense against infection and disease produced by HPV6 and11 as well as genital warts (Dominiak-Felden, et al., 2013). The HPV vaccination is targeted for females aged 11 and 12 years through the series of 3 injections given over 6 months (Gamble, et al., 2010). Boys ages 9-26 can be given the vaccination to prevent genital warts caused by the HPV(Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). The vaccine is approved to be given to girls, boys, women and men that are within the ages of 9-26 years (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014) . The vaccine Gardasil is intended for administration before sexual onset (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). The HPV virus can be transmitted through: oral and digital infection by digital Ã¢â¬âgenital contact or genital digital contact, vaginal and anal intercourse (Gamble, et al., 2010). American Academy of Pediatrics (2013) state that children who receive the HPV vaccine do not engage in sex any sooner than those who have been given other teen vaccines. Most common side effects associated with HPV vaccine Gardasil include: fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, headache ,fever, and at the injection site; pain, swelling ,itching, bruising, and redness (Merk- Sharp and Dohme Corp., 2014). References American Academy of Pediatrics. (2013, August 7). Vaccinating your preteen: Addressing common concerns. Retrieved from http://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/immunizations/Pages/Vaccinating-Your-Preteen-Addressing-Common-Concerns.aspx Dominiak-Felden, G., Cohet, C., Atrux-Tallau, S., Gilet, H., Tristram, A., Fiander, A. (2013). Impact of human papillomavirus-related genital diseases on quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing: results of an observational, health-related quality of life study in the UK. BMC Public Health, 131065. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-1065 Gamble, H. L., Klosky, J. L., Parra, G. R., Randolph, M. E. (2010). Factors Influencing Familial Decision-Making Regarding Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Journal Of Pediatric Psychology, 35(7), 704-715. doi::10.1093/jpepsy/jsp108 Malone, K. M., Hinman, A. R. (n.d.). Vaccination mandates: The public health imperative and individual rights. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov. Merk-Sharp and Dohme-Corp. (2014). Side effects of Gardasil. Retrieved from http://www.gardasil.com/about-gardasil/side-effects-of-gardasil/
Applying Theories of Leadership, Organizations and Motivation Leadership is a social process through which a group or community delegate some power to someone or individual who influence the behavior of others without pressurizing or using any force for doing so but such leader/individual motivate the other. But on other hand leadership is the extra quality/ability of the management of an organization through which the management direct the subordinates to work for mutual goals of group with confidence. Leadership styles are different in different organization, industries and sectors because of their works styles, production capacity and working environment. Environment of all the organizations, industries and sectors is different than the environment of other because the nature of business and working capacity of different units of working is in accordance to its demands and necessities of business. Therefore, to direct the subordinates of a particular unit, the management of the same elect or select its leader through some process and delegate some powers to such leader and who utilize the powers delegated to him for the only purpose of the welfare or mutual benefits/goals of the group and as well as of the organization. Selection of leaders normally held in this way in bureaucratic organizations. 2. Leader A leader is someone who exercise influence over subordinate and other people without using threats or power for the only sake of the benefit or welfare of the community or groups so chosen or elected him/her as their leader. It would not be meaningless to say that a leader is someone who influences others through motivation and people likes to obey him or her willfully not in compulsion. A leader is person who represents the urges and requirements of his community or group and his all actions are only for the welfare and benefits of his groups. Generally leaders are of two kinds formal leaders and informal leaders. A leader who is appointed as leader and has been delegated some power under the shelter of a particular rank or position to perform the particular object. A formal leader is not a natural leader because such leaders are selected or elected in bureaucratic organization through some process for a particular time with the delegation of some particular powers to the extent of the achievement of organizational goals and objectives. An individual chosen by a group or community to which he belongs, without any election or selection is an informal leader and such leaders possess God gifted skills of communication and confidence. Such leaders do not possess authority as the formal leaders are delegated because they are not selected or elected and they are not leader of only an organization but they are leader of a group or community to with they belong and the represent the ideology, demands, requirements, necessities etc. of the groups or community. Informal leaders are natural leaders. 3. Requirements of Leadership for Meeting Present and Future Organizational Goals and Objectives Leaders are the heroes and assets of the organizations or communities to which they belongs and they have basic aim to achieve the task being set to him with the assistance of their groups with confidence and it is one of the duty and responsibility of the leader to communicate the task properly to the group and muster up their courage time to time in all the way required, take the suggestions of the group members to evaluate the attitude of the group members, coordinate the group to complete the task so given to them with the help of the group. Following skills are required to a leader to meet the organizational goals and objective to improve the efficiency of his group. 3.1 Communication of Task Knowledge to the Group Leader of an organization is a formal leader who has been given some authority to direct or influence his subordinates to work for the goals of organization. Formal leaders are part of bureaucratic organization and in this way a leader is given some tasks to be completed within a particular time with the connivance and co-ordination of his group. For getting effective work a leader is supposed to be such a person who possess the complete knowledge about the task in all respects and therefore, it is the first skill of a leader and the basic requirement of leadership to deliver/communicate the requisite knowledge about the task to the group at any stage to get the best of the group at all the times. He should communicate all the loops of the tasks to the group so that nothing should be remained doubtful about the task and the work should be started with confidence till the completion of the task. 3.2 Understanding Organizations Needs Leadership is the power of an organization through which it accumulate its strength in shape of confidence of the man power and high moral which lead the organization towards the prosperity and this is all possible only when the leaders or leadership of an organization remained informed with the demands of the organization needs. A task is a test of the organizations ability whether they have ability to work in any circumstances such as in crucial and difficult time by making right and useful decision in such situations. Co-ordination between the leadership and man power is the basic ingredient of organizations success and completion of difficult tasks. 3.3 Understanding Groups Need Labor/group is main power of an organization and they are fighters who fight for the success of organization because their success is a part of the organizations success. It is one of the main quality of leadership that it fully encourages the labor/groups and tries its level best to solve the problems and fulfill the needs of the groups because satisfaction of the group is composite and unrebutable requirement of a tasks completion. Good leadership works directly for the welfare of organization but indirectly it is fighting for the benefits of the group. Management of an organization by using the process of leadership not even control the groups in the organization but also by using leadership become able to improve the weakness of an organization man power into its strengths. 3.4 Arrangement for Training of Groups An organization is platform in which all fields/departments concerning to the nature of organizations work are combined such as purchase department, manufacturing department, marketing, finance and selling all departments are working together. Time to time new inventions are occurred which also needs to mould or adopt new techniques to improve the working conditions and skills for the gropes of different fields. It is the responsibility of the management of an organization that it should remained intact with the leadership of the groups to understand their needs and requirements for better working situations because by doing so the management through leadership can evaluate the weakness of the groups and can improve their skills by arranging training in the fields of stress. Through these training the management can either improve the skills of the labor but on the other hand also becomes able to evaluate the working capacity of the labor and these training vacations also highlight t he strength of relationship between the groups and leadership. 3.5 Evaluation of Weaknesses and Strengths A smooth working can only be perform if the organization know very well the fields of focus and stress and this could only be possible when an organization is able to understands its weaknesses and strengths. For making it possible, leadership plays the most important role such as a formal leader is indeed a leader from the organization who is selected by the organization through some process. Such leadership helps the organization in evaluating the weaknesses and strengths of the organization out from the groups of the organization because all the group members have good relations with the leaders and they also share their problems as well as about their extra skills with them and by polishing such extra skills through training an organization can not even improve its strengths but also covert its weaknesses into its strengths. A successful organization is such an organization which knows very well about its weaknesses and threats and by mustering the courage and moral of the groups the organization can get a rid of those weaknesses and threats and this is just possible because of good leadership. 3.6 Motivation of Groups of Organization It is the authority which is being delegated to the leaders that they have some powers through which then can direct and even can influence the subordinates and the subordinates obey the directions of the leaders happily because they believe in that all the actions of the leader are for the welfare of them and they are their representatives. Management of an organization can motivate the groups of the organization towards the goals and objectives of the organization just through leadership, Therefore, organizations should remain good and cordial relations with the leadership and should properly motivate to them so that they be able to motivate the groups properly and the best outcome could be expected and achieved. 3.7 Building Confidence All workers of an organization should be confident and confidence of workers is the key of success for organizations. All industries, organizations, sub-divisions and projects have different nature of work therefore, demands of all are different but the basic demand for all of them is the confidence of labor and confidence e of labor come in labor when they are satisfied with the organization management. A leader is intermediate person between the organization and its groups but he represent the groups because he belongs to them. Leadership of an organization can motivate the groups and can built confidence and for such confidence could be possible on the basis of given and taken, therefore, the organization has to some extent polite in favor of the groups and in the same way the groups have to remain polite to some extent in favor of the organization and this given and taken built long lasting confidence between the organization and groups which is the need and requirement of the le adership. Leadership plays the most unique role in the progress of the organizations, sub-divisions, industries and projects because just on the basis of financial resources and human resources no effective work could be done. Effective and useful work could be done only by the co-ordination between the concerns and groups of the concerns and this co-ordination and confidence is soughted only by the role of the leadership because business concerns can not fulfill the requirement of every single labor or member of labor of such concern. Therefore, by co-coordinating each other the organization can achieve its goals and the groups can also achieve their goals vested with the goals of the organization, industries, sub-divisions and projects. Nature of all the organizations, industries, sub-division and projects are different in the same way the attitude of the leaderships of them are different but the strategies for all of them are same because the labor wants priority to their needs and a bureau cratic leader is the person who can solve the problem of the concerns. 4 Modern Theories of Leadership All the times the element of leadership was available in the business activities and as the business working pace has changed in the same way the theories regarding the leadership are also sophisticated and comprehensive which deals in all the requisite aspects of the leadership out of which some modern theories of leadership are as follows: 4.1 Situational Theory of Hersey Blanchard Situational theory of Hersey Blanchard is based on quantum of direction towards the task, relationship between the leadership and groups and level of maturity of the task so governed by the leadership to the groups. In this theory the quantum of direction is supposed to task behavior while relationship between the leadership and groups is the relationship behavior. It is the ability of the leadership that how good relations and coordination it remains with the subordinates because management and leadership are not the actual power of industries, organizations, sub-divisions, and project, actual power is groups which are in numbers and keeps the ability to change the fate of vendor through its working skills. This theory is divided into three behaviors such as: Task Behavior: This behavior evolves around the leader and the groups in which the leader remains engage in splitting out the duties and responsibilities to the groups according to the task that what is the task, what is the work of the each group, how to do, when to do, who to do, where to do. In task behavior the leader of the groups remains in teaching the duties to the groups about the task and communicate the group in one way just about the task. Relationship Behavior: Relationship behavior is a two way communication behavior in which the leader remains engage in supporting the groups because he has to listen the problems, facilitating the groups for smooth and effective working and encouraging them for building confidence. In relationship behavior the leader remains a part of the task working and support the group in all the ways he possibly could. Level of Maturity: Level of maturity of every person is different and this is basically the consent and taking responsibility of a person to direct their personal behaviors. Every person possesses different level of maturity and in this way understanding and commanding power to the extent of their level of maturity is different. Accomplishment of a task depends upon the maturity level of leader and groups because it is up to the leader that in what way he directs and on the other hand in what way the groups understand. All the leaders possess different abilities and level of maturities but to determine the appropriate style it could be assessed from directions of different leaders in same situation and they way the facilitate and communicate to the groups about the task. Because when the level of maturity goes up the leader will reduce its task behavior and increase relationship behavior because in such situation the understanding of the groups has improved therefore, the leaders have need to facilitate the groups in solving their problems for the accomplishment of task and through this molding attitude the leader can evaluate the right level of maturity of the groups working. This theory is applicable to all industries, organizations, sub-divisions and projects working on long term strategies because with the change in the pace of inventions the skills of the groups/labor are not improving in the same ratio therefore, by communicating properly and training in the requisite fields the business orga nization can get the expected and favorable results with the help of effective leadership. Level of maturity when increase whether of leader or labor then he require facilities through which he can perform more effectively and with more pace than at initial stage, therefore, every business concern even of any level can get advantage of this theory because it is applicable to all level of organization, industries, sub-divisions and projects. 4.2 Charles Handys Theory of Best Fit Approach Theory of Handy is a flexible theory through which his emphasis is on the flexibility of style which is adequate according to the situation and circumstances of work whether the style is preferred by the leader or groups but the style should be competent to fulfill the requirements of the task. In this theory the style should be chosen according to the environment and task performance and it is immaterial that the style is preferred by whom, the leader or the groups. According to Handys best fit approach, a style which is fit in accordance of leader, groups, task and environment occur only when all the factors accept it and such style fulfill all the needs and requirement of the working and it makes the leader confident that all the other workings are in consonance of task and the task now could be completed as is expected. A best fit according to Handy occur only when all the first three factors are at one point and demands same style to be adopted for working and after adopting suc h style all the factor got moderate and perform more effectively then according to Handy this is the best fit approach. This theory is a moderate theory of leadership and can easily applicable to all kind of business of small level because multination companies or multiprojects are of such nature works which works on long term strategies and planning and in long term planning moderate theory is not applicable because such projects are involving huge financial resources of stakeholders and stakeholders never take such kind of risk just relying on leadership. In small company as the strategies are short terms and can be amended when required because it is not involved huge financial risk. Therefore, this approach of Charles Handy best fit is applicable only businesses other than industries, organizations, sub-divisions and multination companies because the said units strictly implement strategies so prepared because such strategies are prepared after considering all the effective factors which directly and indirectly effect the activities of the concern. 4.3 Style (Behavioral) Theories Approach under this theory fully concentrates what a leaders style, what a leader does and what is his behavior. Simply this theory revolves around the style, behavior and activities of a leader. It is very difficult to assess the behavior of a leader because as the previous theory of Charles Handy express the moderate behavior of a leader in this way the behavior of a leader could changed in accordance of circumstances and could never be remain same and therefore, it is difficult for someone to assess the attitude/behavior of a leader. In the same way a style is also difficult to measure because it changes with the changes in the working condition. Autocratic, democratic, bureaucratic and laisser-faire are the term which are used for to describe the general approached used for a leader. Style behavior approach is not a best and comprehensive theory according to me because it is revolving around the activities, behavior and style of a leader that what he does, his behavior and style of working. It is a limited approach and can only be applicable to small enterprises because in large unit or enterprises there is no concept of assumption and molding of style according to the wishes of the leader because large enterprises the strategies are being prepared after reviewing the strategies of last years along with the results. Strategy makers also account for all the factors might be caused in future by using the services of skilled and professionals just to avoid any uncertainty and ambiguity in the strategy. Therefore, this theory is not applicable to industries, organizations, sub-divisions and multination enterprises in no way because it is lacking a number of necessary factors to be account for and is not a comprehensive theory. 5. Leadership Models A leader is role model for his followers and the followers happily adopt the styles of their leader because in their view their leader is the best one in all. Following are leadership models:- 5.1 The Fiedler Contingency Model According to the Fred Fiedler Contingency Model, the best performance of a group is dependent on the proper match between the leaders style of directing his group and the level to which the circumstances allowed the leader to direct and influence to his group. Fred Fiedler is the developer of first contingency model of leadership. This model of leadership proposes that a groups best performances can only be achieved if the match between the style of the leader and follower is compatible because the degree of situation never remains the same but it is the behavioral interaction between the leader and the groups which make it possible to be achieved, therefore, to attain the best performance of a group it is primarily be evaluated that the compatibility between the style and interaction of the leader and group is in consonance or not. In this model it is proposed to be checked that whether a certain leadership style is effective in different situations because situation vary from time to time. This model highlight the leader member relations with the groups, task structure and position power of the leader because these all factors are interrelated to each other because sometimes the style of the leader does not properly match due to the stru cture of the task and sometimes because of the relations between the leader and group the style vary and does not match in such way necessary for the effective performance. 5.2 Leader Participation Model This model stress upon the leadership behavior and participation of leadership in decision making in different situations. According to this model the behavior of the leadership must adjust to reflect the task degree. This model was developed by the Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton. In simple words, this model emphasis on the behavior of the leadership should be flexible which could be adjust to reflect the task structure. This model was got changed in early 1970s because research remained continue to find out the effective leadership style. A leadership should keep in mind the decision making contingencies while he is determining that what leadership style would be most effective in current situation. Team competence, leaders expertise, group expertise, group support, decision significance, importance of commitment and likelihood of commitment are the contingencies of decision making. 5.3 Path-Goal Model Path-Goal Model is developed by Robert House. This model clearly highlight the duty of the leader that it is the duty of the leader to assist his group in attaining the goals and give them proper direction as well as make it possible to provide them the support needed in attaining their goals and to ensure them that their goals are absolutely compatible with the organizational goals and objectives. This is a comprehensive model developed by the Robert House because it deals with the responsibilities and duties of a leader. The basic duty of a leader is to provide assistance to his group and make them able to attain their goals which are indeed compatible to the goals of organization. Through this model Robert House divided the behavior of the leaders in four categories such as: Directive Leaders: Such leaders who directs the followers that what is to be done, when to be done, and how they can accomplish the task so given. Supportive Leader: Supportive leader facilitate their groups for effective performance and remained friendly with them so to build their confidence which directly improve the performance of the followers. Participative Leader: A leader who participate in decision making and before making any decision consult with his followers and consider their suggestion in all respect if possible to consider. Achievement-Oriented Leader: A leader who believe in best performance all the time from his followers because such leader set the challenges and communicate the group member promptly and remained supportive and participative all the time. According to Fred Fiedler the leader should not change his style and should remained strict but on the other hand Robert House propose that the behavior of a leader should be flexible and should be molded in accordance with the situation and this is the symbol of effective leadership because a effective leader always handle the situations not personal ego. Thats why the Path- Goal Model is a comprehensive model which can be applicable to all sorts of organizations, enterprises, sub-divisions and projects because leadership remained committed with the organizational goals which are compatible to the goals of the followers. Advise on the Succession of Sir Alex Ferguson After observing the history of the Manchester United and the previous leader Matt Busby who guided the club since 1949 and retired in 1969 and proved him to be an effective and energetic leader of the club but after his retirement the club remained unfortunate because no manager of the club after him brought back the years of excellence and glory except Sir Alex Ferguson. But when we study the historical background of Sir Alex Ferguson then it is concluded that how difficult Sir Alex Ferguson achieved this position and become an aggressive and dominant leader after facing great difficulties in earlier of his life. All the requirements and skills required to a leader for meeting the challenges in present and future have been detailed hereinabove relying on the theories and model of leadership. Therefore, on the basis of above detailed studies it is suggested to Sir Alex Ferguson that succession should possess the following abilities and skills for effective leadership:- Should have experience of working in same situation as is in Manchester United; Should be diligent and hard working; Should be able to communicate the subordinates properly; Should possess the skill to evaluate the weakness and strengths of the club if any; Should possess the ability to motivate the sub-ordinates properly and get their best performance; Should possess the ability to build confidence of the followers; Should possess the ability to understand clubs needs and goals; Should possess the skill and ability to work under pressure; Should have good attitude towards the groups or followers; Should be able to understand the demands and needs of the groups and followers; Should be able to make right decision in different situations; Should be eligible to overcome the crucial and uncertain situations; Should possess good moral values; Should be supportive and participative towards followers or groups; Finally it is suggested that as Sir Alex Ferguson is available in the club till the next season and also know very well the abilities and skills of the sub-ordinates therefore, being a revolutionary and successful leader of the club, he is the person who can choose the succession of the Manchester United because he possess a very long and health experience of working effective leadership and being an effective leader he is the one who knows very well that which one would be the succession of him and what things are to be understand to the succession and now Sir Alex Ferguson has almost one season and it is sufficient time for him to get choose his succession and do the training of him if required and make him able in his presence to face the gravity of work and this would be most fruitful for Sir Alex and his succession because if under the supervision of Sir Alex his succession perform excellent then Sir Alex could believe him that he would perform good in his absence. Therefore, in my suggestion Sir Alex Ferguson should choose his succession in his presence because where the club is now is due to him therefore, he should have the right to choose his succession with his own will but keeping in view goals and destinations of the Manchester United.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Warren Earl Burger was born September 17th, 1907 in St. Paul, Minnesota. He was of Swiss and German ancestry and served as the 15th Chief Justice to the United States Supreme Court. After graduating from St. Paul College of Law in 1931, the lifelong republican held many various positions in the legal system while working his way to the top. Burger focused mainly in the areas of corporate law, real estate and probate law, while at the same time becoming involved in politics. Furthermore, he was involved in many successful campaigns which brought attention to himself by prominent republicans. His appointment to the U.S Court of Appeals quickly built his background as a law and order judge. Serving in the circuit courts for a mere thirteen years led to his appointment as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 1969 by President Richard M. Nixon. Once appointed Chief Justice, Burger presided over numerous cases, BurgerÃ¢â¬â¢s goals as Chief Justice was to modernize and streamline the cou rts to make them more accessible and functional, along with originating the idea of employing professional court administrators, implementing continuing education for judges, and improving coordination between federal and state courts, in addition to being noted for his outspoken criticism of ill-prepared litigators who used the jobs as a way of on-the-job training (Facts, 1996). While serving in the Supreme Court, Justice Burger was involved in many important cases. Chief Justice Burger and the court case of Roe v. Wade is the historic Supreme Court decision overturning a Texas interpretation of abortion law and making abortion legal in the United States (Roe, 2011). Taking place on January 22nd, 1973, the argument over abortion was started. In June of 196... ...d the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial. (Nixon, 2011) The negative effect of this court case is that the inadequate actions of President Nixon unfortunately had to lead to the termination of his Presidency. Warren Earl Burger was a self-made man who rose from modest origins to become the fifteenth Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Striving for the rights of the individuals and for the best outcome on the situation, Justice Burger was the meaning of a true judge working for the people. For example, in the court case of Wade v. Roe, the final decision helped to establish the idea and thoughts on abortion through pro-life and pro-choice groups. During Reed v. Reed, the idea of protection for men and women from gender discrimination was in the view of Burger.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Creatine Monohydrate Creatine monohydrate is a body building supplement. Many athletes and trainers use it to enhance athletic performance. College athletics are an advocate for creatine when it comes to exercising and strength conditioning, But what is creatine? Creatine is a naturally occurring metabolite found in red muscle tissue. It is a powerful ergogenic aid that plays an important role in energizing muscle. Creatine increases the body's ability to do work. It is high powered and generates the muscles ultimate energy source - ATP (adenosine triphosphate)- ATP produces the contractions of a muscle's proteins. When muscles are performing work ATP is being broken down into ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and energy is given off. The ATP being used usually lasts 10 - 15 seconds. After that the muscle depends on creatine phosphate to restock the ATP. Creatine acts as a reserve for the ATP. Therefore increased amounts of creatine will allow the body to supply ATP at a faster rate. Which, in turn allows an individual to workout longer and maintain a high level of strength. With creatine as a supple)-nent the body is exposed 4 grams of creatine per kilogram. Red meats give 1 gram of creatine per large serving. These increased amounts of creatine slow the possibility of fatigue. Creatine promotes the synthesis of protein, which promotes muscle growth. The loading phase consists of 5 grams 4 - 6 times a day for the first 5 to 7 days. 'f his should be accompanied by at least I hour of exercise. The load should then be reduced after a week to no more than IO grams per day. This is what most of the stores that sell the creatine will tell vou because there aim is to sell the product. Since the product has been... ...ur best bet because it has been proved that loading is not necessary. While creatine is being taken it is necessary that the individual remains hydrated during the early cycles extra water is taken into the cells when creatine enters and this causes minor water retention- This water retention has been related to cramps and heat intolerance. The majority of the advocates for creatine didn't report any side effects. In most instances when the question was raised, the articles said, "Yes, it's safe. No negative side effects noted in research with recommended levels of supplement." All of these people were involved with sales and advertisement of the product also. An article on a review of creatine was the most effective in providing insight on creatine because it didn't have anything to do with promotions of it. Creatine is safe, it is pure and it works!
Thursday, July 18, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ËLeaders are born Ã¢â¬Ë and Ã¢â¬Ëleadership accomplishments can be developed Ã¢â¬Ë represent two basically different positions towards the development of leading quality. Which position would you back up, and what deductions may this hold for direction development in organisations? Ã¢â¬ IntroductionAre leaders born or made? This inquiry has grabbed a batch of attending of many writers in the past century. The leading theories and the ways to analyze leading have been evolved over clip. The subject of leading has been of involvement to many research workers throughout the twentieth century but non in the 19th. As Frank Heller ( 1997, p.340 ) notes that in 1896, the US Library of Congress had non one book on the topic of leading. Alan Bryman, one of the most well-thought-of and cited British research worker, has written a reappraisal chapter Ã¢â¬ËLeadership in Organizations Ã¢â¬Ë in 1990s. Bryman traces the displacements in the definition of leading from Trait epochs to the New Leadership epoch ( Bryman, 1996 ) . David Day argues that leaders can be developed. He carried out a thorough scrutiny of leading development from three interconnected positions, of theory, pattern and research ( Day, D. V, 2001 ) . One of his wide findings was that the pattern of leading development offered many processs for executing programmes for accomplishing coveted ends of leading development. However, he was able to happen small hallmark of the connexions between the patterns and those ends. Day gives a clear image of one of the ways in which leading research is chiefly complex to analyze and implement. He foremost differentiates between leader development and leading development. Leader development focuses on the person, and historically was the more of import one. Whereas, leading development shows a broader image of the overall kineticss of the organisations within which leaders and others perform their work ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) . In the undermentioned pages, we will be looking at different theories that either supports the Ã¢â¬ËBorn Ã¢â¬Ë or Ã¢â¬ËMade Ã¢â¬Ë side of leading, back up the impression that leaders can be developed and speak about how can they be developed and what impact does it hold on the direction and leading development in an organisation.Leaderships, Born or Made?Narratives from all over the universe have promoted the fact of natural leaders, who succeeded without any formal preparation or whatsoever. Yet, leading preparation and development has been a turning field of survey. The taken-for-granted belief in the natural born leader was noted in a address on leading made by the Bishop of Durham, Dr Herbert H. Hensley at St Andrews University, Scotland in 1930s, in which he noted that: Ã¢â¬Å" It is a fact that some work forces possess an inbred high quality, which gives them a ruling influence over their coevalss, and marks them out unmistakeably for leading. . . [ in many walks of life ] there are those who with an assured and undisputed rubric, take the prima topographic point, and determine the general behavior Ã¢â¬ ( Quoted in Adair J. , 1989 ) We will now be looking at two proposals by Alan Bryman and David Day. Bryman takes us on a journey through the development of leading theories in the pre-modern times to the rise of trait theory, and an epoch where trait theories became challenges by more behaviourally oriented thoughts. Bryman portrays all these theories as a portion of the Ã¢â¬Å" old leading Ã¢â¬ theoretical account and contrasts them with an of import theoretical account of new leading. We will now understand how trait theories became cardinal, underpinning beliefs about natural Born leaders followed by the diminution in the sensed significance of trait theories added to the ultimate rise of involvement in leading developmental possibilities ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) . An early definition which was accepted for three decennaries was by Stogdill in his enchiridion which says Ã¢â¬Å" Leadership may be considered as the procedure ( act ) of act uponing the activities of a group in attempts towards end scene and end accomplishment Ã¢â¬ ( Stogdill, 1950 ) . Bryman argues that that definition presented by Stogdill indicates how leading was supposed to run through a leader carrying the behavior of the followings. However, he notes that this definition is deficient for distinguishing between leading and direction. He so compares this to a new leading definition which says Ã¢â¬Å" The leader gives a sense of way and aim through the articulation of a compelling world-view [ the specifying feature of which is ] the active publicity of values which provide shared significances about the nature of organisations Ã¢â¬ ( Bryman, 1996 ) . Bryman takes a historiographer Ã¢â¬Ës attack and suggests typical epochs in leading theory and research. He notes that the epochs are suggestions of periods within which a peculiar kind of theory had domination over the other. He categorises them into 4 epochs, the trait epoch, manner epoch, eventuality epoch and the new leading epoch. The trait epoch was from 1880s to 1940s. It emphasised on the indispensable features of a leader which were presumed to be congenital traits like physical traits, abilities like intelligence, communicating etc and personality features like assurance, extroversion etc. The manner epoch was from 1940s to 1960s. It refocused on what the leaders did instead than their personal traits. The most dominant organisational surveies such as the Ohio State probes set a manner for analyzing the studies of followings which was even followed in the eventuality epoch. Research workers attempted to distill manners to a few overarching variables, frequently bring forthing planar theoretical accounts of people oriented and undertaking oriented. The eventuality epoch, right after the manner epoch, that was from late sixtiess to early 1980s. It can be seen as a more complex manner as it incorporates the situational variable. A contingent variable is one whose significance in a theory is dependent on fortunes. A people oriented manner may non be appropriate is the degree of acquisition and instruction of the followings is low. Harmonizing to Bryman, the eventuality theory introduced the Ã¢â¬Ëit all depends Ã¢â¬Ë thought. He identified the theoretical account developed by Fred Fiedler and colleagues as the best known of the eventuality approaches. This theory suggests that the nature of the leader to favor undertaking or relationships may be assessed by the leaders position of his colleagues and specifically for the least preferable colleague ( LPC ) . If a leader sees good qualities in his colleagues, he tends to be more relationship oriented, if non so undertaking oriented. The new leading epoch took up in the 1980s and to day of the month. The typical characteristics are a displacement from the trait, manner and eventuality theoretical accounts through focal point on leading as a socially constructed procedure. The 2nd characteristic was a procedure of transformational alteration. This was a clear limit from the two old epochs of eventuality and manner, although the birth of trait theory could besides be considered as grounded in leader traits linked with major transmutations ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) . In 2001, David Day carried out a elaborate review of leading development from three interconnected positions, of theory, pattern and research. One of his wide findings was that the pattern of leading development can give us many ways for carry oning plans for carry throughing wanted ends of leading development. Day illustrates that leading research is reasonably complex to analyze and put to death. He draws a differentiation between leader development and leading development. Leader development focuses on the person, and historically was the more of import one. Whereas, leading development shows a broader image of the overall kineticss of the organisations within which leaders and others perform their work ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to Day, leading development holds near the single focal point instead than replace it. He criticizes on the weak nexus between theory and pattern and developed six of the most influential techniques for leading development, viz. 360-degree feedback, coaching, mentoring, networking, occupation assignments and actions ( Day, D. V, 2001 ) . This we will discourse in item towards the terminal of this paper. Over the old ages, leading has been studied loosely in a assortment of contexts and theoretical foundations. In some instances, leading has been illustrated as a procedure, but most theories and research on leading expression at a individual to derive understanding ( Bernard, 1926 ; Blake, Shepard and Mouton, 1964 ; Drath and Palus, 1994 ; Fiedler, 1967 ; and House and Mitchell, 1974 ) . Leadership is in general defined by the traits, qualities, and behaviours of a leader. ( Stogdill, 1974 ) , identified several different classs that arrests the kernel of the survey of leading in the 20th century. The first motion dealt with the properties of great leaders. Leadership was explained by the internal qualities with which a individual is born ( Bernard, 1926 ) . The impression was that if the traits that distinguished leaders from followings could be identified, successful leaders could be rapidly evaluated and put into places of leading. Personality, physical, and mental individualisms were examined. This research was based on the thought that leaders were born and non made, and the key to success was merely in acknowledging those people who were born to be great leaders. Despite the fact that much research was done to place the traits, no clear response was found with respect to what traits every clip were associated with great leading. One imperfectness with this line of idea was in ignoring the situational and environmental factors that play a function in a leader Ã¢â¬Ës degree of effectivity ( Horner M. , 1997 ) . A 2nd major thrust looked at leader behaviours in an attempt to reason what successful leaders do, non how they look to others ( Halpin and Winer, 1957 ; Hemphill and Coons, 1957 ) . These surveies began to look at leaders in the model of the organisation, placing the behaviours leaders Ã¢â¬Ë exhibit that increases the efficiency of the company. A 3rd attack in response to the inquiry about the best manner to take dealt with the dealingss between the leader Ã¢â¬Ës traits, the leader Ã¢â¬Ës behaviours, and the state of affairs in which the leader exists. These eventuality theories make the guess that the effects of one variable on leading are contingent on others. Yet another eventuality theory trades with an scrutiny of the people who are led by leaders. The significance of the followings in leading materialized ( House and Mitchell, 1974 ) , and leading was seen as a communicating between the ends of the follo wings and the leader. The path-goal theory proposes that leaders are chiefly responsible for assisting followings build up behaviours that will enable them to achieve their ends or preferred results. Extra leading theories have come frontward over the past 10 to fifteen old ages. This is symbolized by the comparing of transactional and transformational leading. Transactional leading stems from more constituted positions of workers and organisations, and it involves the place power of the leader to utilize followings for undertaking completion ( Burns, 1978 ) . Transformational leading, nevertheless, looks on for ways to assist actuate followings by carry throughing higher-order demands and more to the full appealing them in the procedure of the work ( Bass, 1985 ) . Transformational leaders can get down and cover with alteration, and they can craft something new out of the old. In this manner, these leaders separately evolve while besides assisting their followings and organisations evolve. They construct strong associations with others while back uping and heartening each person Ã¢â¬Ës development. Manz and Sims besides offer a revised, integrative point of position on leading . Using the term Ã¢â¬Å" Super Leadership, Ã¢â¬ they confront the traditional paradigm of leading as one individual making something to other people ( Manz and Sims, 1991 ) . Alternatively, they propose that another theoretical account exists for leading today: Ã¢â¬Å" the most appropriate leader is one who can take others to take themselves Ã¢â¬ ( p. 18 ) . Harmonizing to this position, leading exists within every person, and it is non restricted to the bounds of officially appointed leaders. They suggest that for leaders to be most successful, they need to help each person in the development of taking himself or herself. Leaderships become great by unleashing the possible and capablenesss of followings, hence holding the cognition of many people alternatively of trusting entirely on their ain accomplishments and abilities. Daniel Goleman was the first individual to present the thought of 'emotional intelligence Ã¢â¬Ë in his book with the same rubric in 1995. In his research of around 200 big companies, he found that apart from the leading qualities like intelligence, stamina, finding and vision, which are needed to for a leader to be successful ; there is besides a demand for a high degree of emotional intelligence which includes self-awareness, self-regulation, motive, empathy and societal accomplishments. These qualities may sound soft but Goleman discovered strong relationships between emotional intelligence and the house Ã¢â¬Ës public presentation. Harmonizing to Goleman, IQ and proficient accomplishments are the entry degree demands for any executive places. But Goleman Ã¢â¬Ës research shows that emotional intelligence is the sine qua non of leading and without it, no affair if the individual has the best preparation in the universe, has an analytical head and a clump of superb thoughts, he still wont do a great leader ( Goleman, 1998 ) . Self-awareness is the first component of emotional intelligence, which makes sense when one believe that the Delphic prophet gave the advice to Ã¢â¬Å" cognize thyself Ã¢â¬ 1000s of old ages ago. Self-awareness means holding a deep apprehension of one Ã¢â¬Ës emotions, strengths, failings, demands, and thrusts. Peoples with strong self-awareness are neither overly critical nor unrealistically hopeful. Rather, they are honorable with themselves and with others. Peoples with a high grade of self- consciousness place how their feelings affect them, the people around them, and their occupation public presentation. Therefore, a self-conscious individual who knows that he tilt handle tight deadlines, can be after his clip carefully and gets his work done good in progress. Self-awareness extends to a individual Ã¢â¬Ës accepting of his values and ends ( Goleman, 1998 ) . Self-regulation is the component of emotional intelligence that frees us from being prisoner of our ain feelings. Peoples occupied in such a duologue feel bad tempers and emotional disposition merely as everyone else does, but they figure out ways to command them and to even impart them in utile ways. Peoples with self-regulation tend to take a different way in difficult times. They craft words in such a manner that the individual gets the message without doing him or her feel bad about it. Peoples who have control of their feelings and urges are able to craft an ambiance of trust and equity. In such an environment, political relations and bitching are aggressively reduced and end product is high. Gifted people congregate to the organisation and are n't tempted to go forth ( Goleman, 1998 ) . Motivation is one trait that all leaders possess. They are driven to accomplish beyond outlooks. Many of the people are motivated by external factors like higher wage, a esteemed rubric in the organisation or the taking company itself for which they are working. On the other manus, good leaders are motivated by a deeply embedded desire to accomplish something merely for the interest of accomplishing it. If one wants to mensurate the motivational degree of the leader, expression at the desire and passion for work itself. Such people look for originative challenges and love to larn new things. Empathy can be easy recognized out of all the other dimensions of emotional intelligence. It surely does non intend following others emotions as one Ã¢â¬Ës ain and seek to delight them, instead empathy agencies sympathetically sing employees Ã¢â¬Ë feelings along with other factors while doing intelligent determinations. Empathy is preponderantly indispensable today as a constituent of leading for at least three grounds: the increasing usage of squads ; the rapid gait of globalisation ; and the turning demand to retain endowment ( Goleman, 1998 ) . The first three dimensions of emotional intelligence are self-management accomplishments. The last two, empathy and societal accomplishment, trades with a individual Ã¢â¬Ës endowment to pull off relationships with others. As an component of emotional intelligence, societal accomplishment is non every bit straightforward as it sounds. It Ã¢â¬Ës non merely about friendliness, even though people with high degrees of societal accomplishment are seldom dishonorable. Social accomplishment, instead, is openness with a ground: traveling people in the way you want, whether that Ã¢â¬Ës understanding on a new selling scheme or acuteness about a new merchandise. Social accomplishment is a decision of the other dimensions of emotional intelligence. Peoples tend to be really effective at pull offing associations when they can grok and command their ain emotions and can sympathize with the feelings of others. Even motive addendums to societal accomplishment. Peoples who are ambitious to carry through be given to be optimistic, even in the face of failure. When people are optimistic, their Ã¢â¬Å" freshness Ã¢â¬ is cast upon duologues and other societal brushs ( Goleman, 1998 ) . So can emotional intelligence be learned? For decennaries, people have been reasoning approximately are leaders born or made, and so does about emotional intelligence, are people born with certain degrees of empathy, for illustration, or do they get by existent life experiences? , the reply is both. Scientific research suggests that there is a familial constituent to emotional intelligence and that nature plays a critical function in development of such intelligence. But to what extent, one can non truly mensurate that out. One thing is for certain that emotional intelligence additions as the individual grows older but some people still need developing to develop emotional intelligence. Every individual is born with it, there is a demand to happen and develop it. Emotional intelligence is born mostly in the neurotransmitters of the encephalons limbic system, which administers feelings, urges, and thrusts. Research shows that the limbic system learns best through motive, drawn-out pat tern, and feedback. Compare this with the sort of larning that goes on in the neopallium which governs analytical and proficient ability. The neocortex appreciation constructs and logic. It is the portion of the encephalon that figures out how to utilize a computing machine or do a gross revenues call by reading a book. To hike emotional intelligence organisations must redeploy their preparation to include the limbic system. They must assist people interrupt old behavioral wonts and put up new 1s. That non merely takes much more clip than conventional preparation plans it besides requires an individualised attack. With dedication, continuity and pattern, such a procedure can hold a life long consequence. It Ã¢â¬Ës of import to recognize that constructing 1s emotional intelligence can non and will non take topographic point without sincere desire and concentrated attempt. A brief seminar wo n't assist ; nor can one purchase a how-to manual. It is hard to larn to sympathize, to inte rnalise empathy as a natural response to people, than it is to go proficient at failure analysis. But it can be done. Ã¢â¬Å" Nothing great was of all time achieved without enthusiasm Ã¢â¬ wrote Ralph Waldo Emerson. If your end is to go a existent leader, these words can function as a usher in your attempts to develop high emotional intelligence ( Goleman, 1998 ) . Harmonizing to Day, there are six most influential techniques for leading development, i.e. 360-degree feedback, coaching, mentoring, networking, occupation assignments and action acquisition. 360-degree feedback involves assessment procedures within which the executives ( leaders ) gives feedback to the employees ( followings ) and have a feedback from them if possible at a higher, tantamount or lower degrees in the organisation. It is used to garner positions from the very important persons and the lower downs. This technique is used by many of the luck 500 organisations nevertheless the leading development portion has attracted some differences. Coaching and mentoring are two overlapping agencies of leading development. Both these attacks fit good with the construct of go throughing on the information to the less experient from the more experient one. Coaching is a term by and big related with the proviso of specific sets of behavioral accomplishments ( dialogue, communicating, presentation accomplishments would be typical leading illustrations ) . The procedures tend to presume that statute cognition is transferred from the trainer to the trainee. Mentoring, correspondent to training, is a classical term to specify the relationship between the wise man, the experient and knowing one, and a less experient receiver. Unlike coaching, the cognition transportation is less concerned with specific accomplishments and the acquired cognition is more likely to be dispersed. Mentoring is therefore more clearly developmental, and sometimes called as tacit accomplishments. This characteristic allows the possibility of informal mentoring relationships. Networking has been acknowledged within cognition direction research, as holding a connectivist footing. This draws a differentiation between theories which regard cognition as inborn in persons ( cognitivist theories ) and those concerned with relationships across persons ( connectivist theories ) . These theories believe that organisational constructions are self-structuring, as an result of the information flows through several connexions ( webs ) amongst its single members. The networking attack to leading development is the most obviously connectivist one. Job assignments have played a critical portion in the field of direction development programmes for many old ages. The simple hypothesis is that persons learn by being exposed to wide-ranging challenges of importance to current or future occupations. The statement has been widely applied to apologize concern exchanges, foreign deputations, even abroad school trips. It will be noted that a occupation assignment programme will inescapably hike a alteration in networking activities of those occupied, so that the appraisal of the one technique against the other is a complex affair. Action acquisition is an look applied to an extended scope of experiential acquisition procedures. The procedures tend to affect undertakings as the drive force for larning ; these are frequently directed towards of import concern jobs. It presents the impression of calculated engagement. The find procedure comes from the interior of a individual. The procedure comes with a demand to work through jobs of objectiveness and whether consequences could be generalized or non ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) . Apart from these patterns and attacks, there are many formal leading development establishments in the universe. The Centre for Creative Leadership ( CCL ) is considered as one of the most experient planetary leading development organisations in the universe. It was founded in 1970 in Greensboro, NC, USA and had developed itself as a universe leader with many other installations in the US, Europe and Asia. Even in the UK, Ashridge Management College built its extended leading programmes in the 1980s and 90s with the aid of its franchise from CCL. Manchester Business School ( MBS ) besides became a portion of the programme for proficient leading over a period of old ages through its Research & A ; Development Department ( Rickards and Clark, 2006 ) .DecisionThere is still much of a argument that Ã¢â¬Ëare leaders born or made Ã¢â¬Ë , in my perceptual experience and by looking at a scope of articles and books, came to a decision that nevertheless there is an in-born component involv ed in the development of leading, preparation and development is still in much demand to foster explore and smooth that possible. As Goleman notes that Ã¢â¬ËIt would be foolish to asseverate that good-old-fashioned IQ and proficient ability are non of import ingredients in strong leading. But the formula would non be complete without emotional intelligence. It was one time thought that the constituents of emotional intelligence were Ã¢â¬Å" nice to hold Ã¢â¬ in concern leaders. But now we know that, for the interest of public presentation, these are ingredients that leaders Ã¢â¬Å" need to hold Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Ë ( Goleman, 1998 ) . The techniques identified by David Day are deserving observing. Whereas the formal techniques can be used in the development of leading, many other informal attacks can besides be considered. Informal squads can besides be setup in an organisations what can give informal but valuable feedback about a individuals behavior which than can be taken attenti on of. A individual may be born with leading accomplishments and may hold emotional intelligence to a certain degree, but when we look at eventualities, the leader has to be cognizant of the state of affairss and has to be pro-active instead than being re-active. Leadership development in footings of emotional intelligence is a drawn-out and clip devouring procedure but it is deserving puting in provided that the scholar is unfastened to all kinds of acquisition and has a passion and enthusiasm for it.