Friday, May 31, 2019
Investigation Techniques of A HomicideThe O. J. Simpson double murder trial is perhaps the most publicizedcase this decade. However, before the practice of law foundation arrest Simpson and prosecutehim, they must investigate. The investigation techniques LAPD used are used allover the world.CRIME SCENEPatrol officers received a disturbance call at Nicole Simpsonsresidence. They arrived on scene and discovered two bodies. They looked aroundto see if the suspect is anywhere around then they checked to get back the twosubjects were dead. The officers immediately contacted the detectives on dutyand supervisors and then secured the area to ensure no contamination to thescene. The officers duties included making sure that no unauthorized population mayenter the scene. They also have to protect all possible evidences left by thesuspect.In the Simpson case, the officers did not do a very trade good job at securingthe scene. They had allowed unauthorized officers the go through the sce ne, thuscausing some contamination to the criminal offense scene. This error had allowed thedefense to attack the creditability of the police department. own AND TIME OF DEATHWhen the officers first arrived the scene, they saw two people lying in apool of blood. The officers did not know if they were dead and if they were, howand when. After the medical exam examiner looked at the bodies and the wounds on thevictims, he concluded that they were stabbed to death. The time of death was abit harder to determine. Death caused some changes to the bodies. Theinvestigator looked at the changes and was able to consider a time of death.Some of the changes the examiners look for are lost of clay temperature,rigor mortis, and postmortem lividity. The body temperature will start todecrease after death. The body will also start to stiffen after death, this iscall rigor mortis. Rigor mortis usually starts to set in two to four hours afterdeath. clock time of death can be estimated by the sti ffness of the body. Another wayto estimate the time of death is postmortem lividity. When the body ceased tofunction, gravity pulls the blood shovel in and settled at the lowest points of thebody. Postmortem lividity may appear on the body between half hour to four hoursafter death.The endeavor of t... ...ered more evidences to link Simpson to the murders.All the testimonies showed that Simpson had actually planned the crime. He evenhad an alibi which was shaky. Simpson also had a history of spousal abuse. Allthe evidences pointed unfavorably toward O. J. Simpson. The elements of thecrime the police needed were established and Simpson was formally Charged.DNAThere were no fingerprints at the crime scene. However, there were someblood which belonged to neither victims. Thanks to unexampled technology,scientists can detect differences in peoples DNA. DNA is the geneticfingerprint of a person. The principal of DNA identification is the same asfingerprints, no two persons can have t he same composition. During the Simpsontrial, the admissibility of DNA evidence was highly debated.The O. J. Simpson trial had ended for a year now. O. J. was cleared ofmurdering his former wife and her friend. The police is still analyse thiscase. The LAPD made some mistakes which allowed the defense to attack thecreditability of the police. This showed the importance of protecting thecrime scene. Other than these mistakes, the LAPD conducted a almost text bookperfect investigation.t
Thursday, May 30, 2019
In a nation that spent some 75 zillion dollars on prescription drugs in 1993, not to mention illegal drugs, we sometimes discharge the coping mechanisims we have been endowed with (U.S. 1995). Our bodies were created to take c be of themselves for the most part, and we sometimes botch things up when we try to alter our system with drugs. In Proverbs 1722 (1989), it says "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine, precisely a broken spirit drieth the bones." For many years scientists and lay persons have through with(p) studies, research, and performed experiments concerning the cause of laughter on ones physical and mental health. These studies have turn out that when we laugh, there is an actual chemical change in our bodies that helps to ease pain and exculpate stress. Laughter is a coping mechanisim for the normal stress of biography. There are two kinds of stress-- disoblige, which is the negative kind of stress and eustress, which is the positive kind of stress. While distress increases stress hormones such as beta-endorphin, corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, and the catecholamines, eustress decreases these hormones and instead increases the activity of native Killer (NK) cells that help fight diseases (Berk & Tan 1996). Distressful events and major life changes can obviously impact our bodies negatively. It has been proven that stress depletes the immune systems superpower to fight against disease. Dr. Lee Berk and Dr. Stanley Tan of the Loma Linda University Medical Center have done an abundance of research in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). PNI simply says that the immune system is directly connected to the brain therefore, it would be effected by the emotions. One of Berk and Tans experiments showed that immunosuppressive hormones (hormones that harm or deplete the immune system) such as epinephrine and cortisol were freeze off in those participants that laughed than in those who did not (Wooten 1995). Another ex periment performed by Berk and Tan (1996) in which they presented their results at a conference on April 18, 1996, proved that laughing (while ceremonial a humorous video) increases the amount of NK cells. Indirectly, stress is probably our number one killer. It effects us physically and mentally, wearing our immune systems down, and causing us to be more susceptible to sickness and disease. We try to swear out the disease, when we really need to treat the cause. How does one treat something like stress?laughter essays research written document In a nation that spent some 75 million dollars on prescription drugs in 1993, not to mention illegal drugs, we sometimes overlook the coping mechanisims we have been endowed with (U.S. 1995). Our bodies were created to take care of themselves for the most part, and we sometimes botch things up when we try to alter our system with drugs. In Proverbs 1722 (1989), it says "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine, but a broken spirit dr ieth the bones." For many years scientists and lay persons have done studies, research, and performed experiments concerning the effects of laughter on ones physical and mental health. These studies have proven that when we laugh, there is an actual chemical change in our bodies that helps to ease pain and release stress. Laughter is a coping mechanisim for the normal stress of life. There are two kinds of stress--distress, which is the negative kind of stress and eustress, which is the positive kind of stress. While distress increases stress hormones such as beta-endorphin, corticotrophin, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, and the catecholamines, eustress decreases these hormones and instead increases the activity of Natural Killer (NK) cells that help fight diseases (Berk & Tan 1996). Distressful events and major life changes can obviously impact our bodies negatively. It has been proven that stress depletes the immune systems ability to fight against disease. Dr. Lee Be rk and Dr. Stanley Tan of the Loma Linda University Medical Center have done an abundance of research in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). PNI simply says that the immune system is directly connected to the brain therefore, it would be effected by the emotions. One of Berk and Tans experiments showed that immunosuppressive hormones (hormones that harm or deplete the immune system) such as epinephrine and cortisol were lower in those participants that laughed than in those who did not (Wooten 1995). Another experiment performed by Berk and Tan (1996) in which they presented their results at a conference on April 18, 1996, proved that laughing (while watching a humorous video) increases the amount of NK cells. Indirectly, stress is probably our number one killer. It effects us physically and mentally, wearing our immune systems down, and causing us to be more susceptible to sickness and disease. We try to treat the disease, when we really need to treat the cause. How does one treat somethi ng like stress?
A Modern Black Arts Movement through the Instrument of rap musicSince the decade of 1920, America has been the setting for a progressive Black Arts Movement. This African-American ethnic movement has taken shape in various genres, gaining push-down list appeal, through multiple capitalistic markets. Even with the use of capitalism this cultural arts movement has stayed set upon its original purpose and direction, by aiding in cultural identity awareness. The knowledge of the duel-self through community awareness as it pertains to economic perceptions and other social boundaries or the metaphysical-self what W.E.B. Du Bois coined as tw onenessss, or a division of ones own identity as a African-American. (Reuben 2) A realization of the existence of two beings indoors ones mental identity, where time alters position and identity through environmental influence of passing events. The discovery of the New Negro in the Harlem Renaissance marks the beginning of this essential philosoph y impart to the 1960s Black Arts Movement and the Civil Rights Movement continuing to be evident in current pees of black art, such as within the lyrics of hip-hop music. These revolutionary Ideals of reform have been voiced in the lyrics of many rappers of urban realism, like the New York M.C.s Rakim, Run-D.M.C. and west coast rapper Tupac Shakur. though this form of expression is opposed by most academic elitists and fundamental conservatives due to their vulgar expressions of sex and violence depicted within the genre of pat it in opposition actually presents an internal cultural conflict revealed through the redefinition of ones own identity with poetic lyrical expressions of realism. This art form known as rap developed due to the in... ...Working Hip-Hop Chronology. Professa Raps Working Hip-Hop Chronology. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. .Reuben, Paul P. PAL Appendix F Elements of Poetry. PAL Perspectives in American Literature-A Research and Reference Guide. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. .Reube n, Paul P. Chapter 9 Harlem Renaissance-An Introduction. PAL Perspectivesin American Literature-A Research and Reference Guide. Web. 25 Apr. 2013..Salaam, Mtume ya. The aesthetics of rap. African American Review. 29.2 (1995) 303-316.Shakur, Tupac. Words of Wisdom. OHHLA.com. Web. 25 Apr. 2013. .Toure. Rap-up. Rolling Stone. Apr. 1995 78.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Romanticism, an intellectual and cultural movement during the late 18th to 19th century that followed the Age of Enlightenment, could be described as a rebellion against the social and political norms of the aristocratic society. Merriam-Webster defines Romanticism as a literary, artistic, and philosophical movement originating in the 18th century, characterized chiefly by a response against neoclassicism and an emphasis on the imagination and emotions (Romanticism). Historians oftentimes have reflected upon the conscious rejection of conventional societal manners as a characteristic of young poets (Spielvogel 657). Contrary to the rationalistic approach to thought that was typical of the Age of Enlightenment, Romantic literature focused upon human emotion, freedom of thought, individualism, self-reflection and the adoration of the ordinary. Romantic poetry also served as a way to express one of the foremost characteristics of Romanticism love of spirit (Spielvogel 658.) Intui tion, free expression of emotion and thought, a return to the sacramental connection with nature and the belief in the goodness of humankind were all critical elements within much of the literature of this time. Percy Bysshe Shelley, a classic example of a Romantic poet, contributed vastly to the legacy of Romanticism. Critical writer Tel Asiado states, his poems over flow with intense emotional and radical ideas (Asiado).During Shelleys life, he composed many impressive works of poetry that were characterized by the freedom of thought, human emotion, individualism, reflection on the past, thoughts on humanity and dynamic power of nature. Although Matthew Arnold labeled him an ineffectual angel, 20th-century critics have taken Shelley s... ...tions of Literature. Port Washington, NY Kennikat, 1965. Print. Hesse, Hermann, Egon Schwarz, and Ingrid Fry. Siddhartha, Demian, and separate Writings. New York Continuum, 1992. Print. Mazzeno, Laurence W. Ode To The West Wind. Masterplots II Poetry, Revised Edition (2002) 1-2. MagillOnLiterature Plus. Web. 21 Apr. 2012.McLean, John L. Percy Bysshe Shelley. MagillS Survey Of World Literature, Revised Edition (2009) 1-7. MagillOnLiterature Plus. Web. 21 Apr. 2012.Note On Poems Of 1818, By Mrs. Shelley. Notes...by Mary Shelley. Web. 17 Apr. 2012. .Raymer, John. Ode To The West Wind. Masterplots, Fourth Edition (2010) 1-2. MagillOnLiterature Plus. Web. 12 Apr. 2012.Spielvogel, Jackson J. Western Civilization A Brief History, Volume 2. Seventh ed. Vol. 2. capital of Massachusetts Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
The Possibility of a Role for NATO in International Relations When NATO was founded in 1949, it had a clearly defined design. It was an adherence for collective security against the USSR and the state of warsaw Pact, whereby if one member state was attacked, the rest would come to her aid under article 5. Since the fall of the Soviet Union and the block up of the Cold War, however, the role of NATO has become a great deal less clearly defined, since its members no longer really concord any need for a defensive alliance. Indeed, operations such as those in Bosnia and Kosovo have suggested that for from being a defensive alliance, NATO may have some kind of future as an offensive alliance. There are also now doubts, however, over whether the futures of Europe and the United States are bound together as they were during the Cold War, and many European countries now pursue radically divers(prenominal), more pacifistic foreign policies to that of America. M any people now fell, therefore, that NATO is nothing more than an anachronistic hangover from the Cold War with no real future. Others would say, however, that organisations such as NATO and the UN are still crucial in the modern world to ensure that countries do not act unilaterally, moreover co-operate with allies. It is first perhaps worth considering in what way NATOs role in the modern world is changing. As has already been said, NATO may no longer really be viewed as a defensive organisation. This is not to say that it no longer has a credible role, however, and many would argue that it can be utilize as a useful tool in solving international problems. There are several examples of this suggestion in action. For in... ...is an alliance of such different interests will mean that its future survival is highly dubious. As Nicholas Burns, the US Ambassador to NATO, said recently, the EUs push for greater military autonomy poses the most world-shakin g threat to NATOs future. Thus there is still a role for NATO in the modern world, although this role has shifted from being defensive to being offensive, as above examples have shown. The question now must be, then, whether NATO can function effectively has an organisation in the coming years. Many would say that the polarising effect of Americas aggressive foreign polity under George Bush and the recent expansion or the organisation Eastwards towards Russian borders will mean that NATO will cease to have a role in the future, since it is now a body which such conflicting interests.
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
The Problem of LonelinessIn theology class, loneliness was outlined as the experience of being disconnected, unrelated, or cut off from the Other. The Other is something that fulfills a dimension of the human person, that pushes one to enter into relationships, be it with God or an some other human. In core humanities we examined St. Augustines spiritual autobiography, The Confessions of St. Augustine, and credited him with defining the concept. However, many other writers since Augustines time have also worked with this concept of loneliness. Dante while writing his famous cantos about the afterlife and, more recently, Sr. Helen Prejean in her novel Dead Man Walking both eloquently clear up on the idea that it is necessary for humans to enter into relationships.Humanitys need for the Other becomes more and more apparent in Dantes funny farm as Dante descends deeper into Hell. In the upper circles of Hell, Dante describes punishments that fit the various sins the sinners committed while they were alive. The sinners are punished with an overindulgence of their sin. For instance, the circle of the angry is filled with angry flock who yell at each other for eternity just as the circle of the wrathful is filled with wrathful people who will, similarly, hit each other for eternity. While being placed in these circles is not desirable, it should be noted that the sinners do have contact with one another and, in a demented way, are happy because they are getting to do what they most wanted to do on Earth.When Dante crosses the wall of Dis, he begins to describe more severe punishments what was set forth in class as Little Mermaid Hell disappears. Pain is now inflicted from a source outside the sinners. Actual physical pain becomes an issue. For instance, one pigeonholing of sinners is described as being torn limb from limb by devils and then thrown back into a river of boiling blood. At this point the indorser should notice that the sinners are no longer able to interact with each other.Dante illustrates this lack of contact even more clearly when he reaches the deepest regions of Hell. There, Dante describes how the sinners are kept completely isolated from one another in blocks of ice. Virgil, Dantes guide, informs Dante that the worst sinners are punished in this fashion because their sins completely cut them off from the perch of humanity. And, just as in the rest of Dantes Hell, these sinners are placed in Hell according to what their actions were on Earth.
The Problem of LonelinessIn theology partition, loneliness was defined as the view of existence disconnected, unrelated, or cut off from the Other. The Other is something that fulfills a dimension of the human person, that pushes one to enter into relationships, be it with God or another human. In core humanities we examined St. Augustines spiritual autobiography, The Confessions of St. Augustine, and credited him with defining the concept. However, many other writers since Augustines time have also worked with this notion of loneliness. Dante while piece of music his famous cantos about the afterlife and, more recently, Sr. Helen Prejean in her novel Dead Man Walking both eloquently elaborated on the head that it is necessary for humans to enter into relationships.Humanitys need for the Other becomes more and more app bent in Dantes Inferno as Dante descends deeper into Hell. In the upper circles of Hell, Dante describes punishments that fit the various sins the sinners committ ed while they were alive. The sinners are punished with an overindulgence of their sin. For instance, the circle of the angry is filled with angry people who yell at each other for eternity just as the circle of the wrathful is filled with wrathful people who will, similarly, hit each other for eternity. While being placed in these circles is not desirable, it should be noted that the sinners do have contact with one another and, in a demented way, are joyful because they are getting to do what they most wanted to do on Earth.When Dante crosses the wall of Dis, he begins to describe more severe punishments what was described in class as Little Mermaid Hell disappears. Pain is now inflicted from a source outside the sinners. Actual physical pain becomes an issue. For instance, one group of sinners is described as being torn limb from limb by devils and then thrown back into a river of boiling blood. At this point the reader should notice that the sinners are no longer able to intera ct with each other.Dante illustrates this lack of contact even more clearly when he reaches the deepest regions of Hell. There, Dante describes how the sinners are kept completely isolate from one another in blocks of ice. Virgil, Dantes guide, informs Dante that the worst sinners are punished in this fashion because their sins completely cut them off from the rest of humanity. And, just as in the rest of Dantes Hell, these sinners are placed in Hell according to what their actions were on Earth.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Introduction For umpteen disciplines across the country on that point puddle been many studies on what type of communication is best for savants, teachers, and p arnts release into the twenty-first century. Many school districts have chosen the (CMC) technology which is the Computer mediated communication and it has dramatically changed the ways for students to interact with their professors, especially for communication outside of the classroom (which is better choice pg1). For my future classrooms this along with the phone and paper is my preferred communication system of choice.Class WebsiteFrom many studies students who are older prefer asynchronous communication such as email can effectively help students in understand problems outside of the classroom. Recently synchronous communication such as a virtual office hours using online chat was also widely handlingd in the class room. (Which is a better choice page 9) For a school website to exist the schools must first foll ow these four objectives. 1 An introduction to who the school is. 2 An interface of outside resources 3 Publisher of good works 4 A Data resource. (Tech Trends vol 49 num. 6 pages 1.)Most schools already have websites that display this information however what would need to be created is simply a white board that parents and faculty members who are involved with the kindergarten level can access. black-and-blue board A whiteboard is simply a website that parents and faculty members alike can log onto and check what is happening in the classroom as tumefy as grades. For kindergarten I propose that this whiteboard would have a white page with buttons at the top that will take them to different links. These buttons are laid out in a simple tool bar layout.Teacher Student List Grades Work for week School Calendar Current curriculum Classroom policies and intercommunicate Info. . procedures Tool Bar Buttons A Teacher allude info. This will have my contact information and the hours I am on tap(predicate) as well as my vision and mission statement. B This will have the students names that are listed in my class as well as their parents pinch contact information only visible to faculty. C Will list the current grades for each subject for the quarter or semester that we are currently in.D This will have any subjects or work that we are working on for the week so that parents can visually see what we are doing in class. E This will have a classroom calendar will subject time slots as well as break schedules, lunch times, and different time slots as needed F This will have my classroom curriculum for the semester and will be constantly updated as it changes G To me it is important for parents to live on the behavior system that you as a teacher put into place as well as any school policies regarding anything from parent teacher action ,kids misbehaving, lunch procedures, etc.All of this involves the webmaster for the school simply using basic html web cr eating code to create. The information that is based on the website is simple text with minimal visualization. Email/phone The other form of communication that I would have my parents commit would be email system as well as phones. Most parents who are in the current age of computers and 21st technology are familiar with how to email and use smart phones as well. I would use this system to keep parents informed in any behavior issues as they occur.The phone system would be not only an emergency behavior contact system but also an important communication tool for any parent to contact me. Technology hindered parents Now there are parents out there who may be ESL parents that are not familiar with how to access the whiteboard or email. For these parents I would suggest sending out monthly handouts that explain A How to use the white board and email. B my contact information as well as the schools. C SinceI am pretty fluent in computers I would also try an hold a 1hour class free to p arents a month to show them not only the benefits of technology but how to access our whiteboard for student and classroom information. Of course C is based on the amount of computers that our school district has provided us because as we all know some rural schools are still not able to provide a computer lab. How would I setup communication for this school? Non Computer lab school.For a school that doesnt have a computer lab or website I would revert back to the old fashion way of creating a folder for my students to take nursing home every Friday that would encompass all the information that would be normally available on the website. School Website security Since I am a teacher ostensibly computer security would be the webmasters job. However I would contract parents to join the schools computer website by creating a username and password so that they would have access to the resources available on the classroom whiteboard as well as the schools website.Faculty For the white board I would ask my fellow teachers to setup a development group to keep the specific kindergarten audience in mind. They would submit a design as to what appropriate sites, cultural analysis, content organization for a culturally antiphonal website, as well as development of the site and constant site evaluation. (Tec trends Vol 49, number 6 pg. 35) Eventually after the site was created and used for a category I would ask the development team to go back and perform an analysis to see how convenient the site use was for parents and faculty.Then I would ask this analysis information to be passed around to other schools as well as school districts in hopes that it would spread across the state as well as country. I would recommend using all of this analysis with the website http//teacher. scholastic. com/homepagebuilder/ to build the whiteboard and website for all schools. Conclusion As you can see my vision for communication for the 21st century framework not only includes techno logy of old (paper, phones) but a computer mediatedcommunication website that provides all the details of myself as a teacher plus the classroom information for my class.This type of technology will help not only the student to parent communication about what is going on in class but also the parent to teacher communication about my vision and mission statement as a teacher. I believe a white board is what every classroom should have in education for classroom of the 21st century References.Author A garland Li1Author B Finley, John1Author C Pitts, Jennifer1Author D Rong Guo1 (2010). Which is a better choice for student-faculty interaction synchronous or asynchronous communication? Journal of Technology Research Sep2010, Vol. 2, p1-12, 11p, 5 Charts Author A Miller, Susan1Author B Adsit, Karen I. 2, 3 Author C Miller, Ted4 (Dec 2005) Evaluating the Importance of Common Components in School-Based Websites Frequency of Appearance and Stakeholders Judged Value.TechTrends Linking Researc h & Practice to Improve culture Nov/Dec2005, Vol. 49 Issue 6, p34-40, 7p, 5 Charts Author A Walters, Marlenel Author B Fehring, Heather2 (2009) An investigation of the incorporation of Information and Communication Technology and thinking skills with Year 1 and 2 students. Australian Journal of Language & Literacy Oct2009, Vol. 32 Issue 3, p258-272, 15p, 1 Black and White Photograph, 6 Diagrams, 1 Chart Website http//teacher. scholastic. com/homepagebuilder/
Sunday, May 26, 2019
This also includes any female emotions they might encounter such as hurting, melancholy and frustration leading them to surrender. In Exile of the Sons of Gillis, Dermiss destiny was already determined opus she was in the womb. She was raised apart from every whizz else and isolated from the world. After she was born all of her motive was taken in the hands of society. She was fully under the control of Connector, as he announced This Woman Ill keep to myself(131). As only beingness seen as an object the types of men she was Introduced to would never eve her, but would take control of her and battle for her ownership.The full year she was taken under Schooners control she never gave one smile, she had no strength to eat or sleep, or even Lift her head from her knees. At this time, Dredger was taken full advantage of the most by being degraded and raped repetitively by Connector and Eagan. Despite the men that Derider has been through, no one captured her opinions as much as Noi ses. This is where Derider had taken it upon herself to have Noises coax Connector allow them to escape together.Since Cinchonas made no exceptions, Derider urged Noises to return home where she would remain unprotected. In order for this physical and mental pain she was experiencing to stop, she was left zilch more but to kill herself. One of her last words spoken was, Break my heart no more today, In a short while Ill be no more, Grief is heavier than the sea, If you were but wise, Connector(136). Due to not having any control In this situation she rebelled against them proving her ultimate power over her body, look and spilt.When Dredger committed seclude, she knew that by taking her own life she would never be dominated by Connector and Eagan, the two men she hated the most. Similar themes argon encountered in The Wifes Lament. The main character is also feeling the same emotions as Derider in the Exile of the Sons of Gillis. In the beginning, this poem it describes the wifes resentment she has towards her husband who left her feeling empty and alone in the world. This can be compared to Derider were both of these women do not know how to react to their different tuitions or able to move on from it.Also, they both are longing for a love that they will never have. Since her life was revolved around the well being of her Lord, once he is gone she feels helpless in this unfamiliar and hostile world. Her misery Is expressed when she recites, There I weep my exile, the many burdens. Therefore I can never solidification my cares at rest, nor still all this lifes longing, which Is my lot(1 14). This quote overlooks all her sorrows being left In the dark and deserted, that she will never overcome her suffering pain of separation.She was left with no control under ten solution Ana let to accept near loneliness. Her last tongue was auto near husband and convert herself that he too was suffering. Whether my friend has all the worlds Joy his bidding or whether, outlawed from his homeland, he sits covered with storm frost beneath a bouldered cliff my weary minded friend, drenched in some dreary hall he suffers great anguish(114). Overall, this poem is mainly focuses on the speakers heartache suffering through her state of hopelessness.Today, women are till experiencing the issues of degrading and being looked at as an object. Each of the women in The Exile of the Sons of Gillis and The Wifes Lament showing the turpitude that degrading had caused. This is where they both took action and tried to escape their feeling of constant misery. They had no control or power in any situations leading them to their feelings of pain, sorrow and frustration. Leading us to have higher hopes for the future that will always be taken into consideration in positions of leadership and appreciated for what they stand for.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
Jails and Prisons Response Prisons and jails may both confine offenders but they hasten their differences. Jails are for offenders that have short term sentences or for corresponding until the offender is transferred to a prison. They are also used to hold a criminal during their hearings until sentencing (Schmalleger, 2011). Prisons are for offenders that are sentenced to long-term or permanent confinement. They are origins separated in to three categories depending on how serious the offense was or the mental state of the offender.There are minimum, medium, and maximal prisons (Schmalleger, 2011). All aspects of the criminals life is controlled by the authorities of the prison. This is what makes it a total institution. Depending on the crime committed and the individual they decide on which institution will be best. There are also four types of prisons which are military, juvenile, political, and psychiatric. They each have their place in the criminal justice system. The conc ept of prisons as a institution is total control and authority.Medical, education, and treatments are available to inmates as part of their rights. Within any institution there are different programs and departments to make it run properly. Jails athletics a important role in the system. They hold non-violent criminals from violent criminals. If everyone went to prison they would be over populated. Jails are beneficial because they are local and can hold offenders for short periods. A court would not want to send a offender who did not pay his parking tickets to prison for 30 days.
Thursday, May 23, 2019
When you hear or read that word, there is something that emerges from our mind. I find myself very much perplexed when I am asked Kinas among panhandling as abye classmates? . I dont think there is no one that is piata among all the human beings but rather Omni beautiful when it comes to dish aerial . Everyone is beautiful. Everything is beautiful. But how do we phone someone or something beautiful? What makes us think that they are really beautiful? How do people perceive dish?How come we have opposite perception towards beauty? When we internalize this, we go back again to history to answer these confusing yet very interesting questions. Our concept of beauty is influenced by many things. The society is the very first foundation to where we discover, realize, understand, and come to know things. The society plasters in front of our faces these people with bodies that ripples and shines like the gods faces with prominent nose, perfectly uninterrupted teeth, protruding lipsHair that is straight, soft and shiny and presents it to everyone as the concept of what is beautiful. Eventually, everyone that has seen that idea has perceived it in his/ her mind of what beauty exactly is. Everyone with the looks that is similar to the model at last commits the sin vanity while the others who dont eventually look down on their selves. We must be able to obliterate this mindset. We should keep in mind that beauty is not and never will be tangible.We should put to an end the doings of moments that determines which is the most beautiful woman, in short the beauty pageants. Because as what Vie written above, everyone and everything is beautiful. Every day, we see beauty in many forms and shapes. in that respect is beauty in art. We see beauty in the display of human creativity and passion. There is beauty in nature. Imagine seeing the sunset in a slow-MO A bee swaying with the wind The trees that grow long Greene stems and roots through the years.There is palpable bea uty that e see in human beings. No, not only those who are in the magazines and televisions are beautiful. For me, those who appreciate the beauty of others and not only herself is beautiful. Those who dream, who delights in destiny other people, who never oppress others, and never conducts up are beautiful because beauty are the qualities in a person or object that give pleasure to the senses or spirits ND being good in the inside is enough reason for a living being to be called beautiful.
Wednesday, May 22, 2019
It seems reasonable then to assume that where researchers find evidence of striking artistic innovation in the city of architecture, Nero is to some extent responsible, for the radical progression of aesthetic quality is con viewrable. Art historians are agreed that the only major innovation found in the Domus Aurea, is the use of vault mosaics. In AD 64 a devastating fire swept through the capital of the Roman Empire, leaving swaths of the city center smoldering and uninhabitable (Gates 362). Emperor Nero took this opportunity to variant a vast, luxurious residence and landscaped parkland c aloneed the Domus Aurea, or Golden House.Later, Neros critics found several features of the place symbolic of his megalomaniacal self-indulgence, including its artificial lake, the 100-foot-tall statue of the emperor, and board with revolving mechanisms. As part of his general re verbal expression of Rome Nero could ware had the idea of embellishing the central area with parks, groves and fou ntains. Here in his thickening of imperial buildings he could describe audiences and do business, while his people would have access to him and to some of the buildings and grounds.Neros comitas and popularitas must be remembered he was not a man to deprive his public. abruptly before the Fire he held a public banquet in which he extended to the people pleasures normally confined to the few. Tacitus sneer on this occasion, He used the whole city as his house (Tacitus 417), reminds one of the squib Rome will become a house. Nero may have felt he was orifice his house to the citizens, while his critics felt that he was excluding the citizens from their city.After the Fire researchers find him offering public entertainment in his Vatican circus and adjacent gardens, dressed as a charioteer and mixing with the plebs (Champlin 74). In any case, nothing suggests that Nero meant to shut himself up in the Domus Aurea. One of the problems for the Pisonian conspirators may have been that after the Fire, with his palace damaged and at a lower place reconstruction, Nero was spending his time in imperial properties that were more(prenominal) private, such as the Servilian Gardens. Thus the Domus Aurea Park need not have prevented movement through the optic of the city, though doubtless the r out(p)es were changed.Even on the Palatine only a cryptoporticus connected the various imperial buildings there was no need to weld them all into one enclosed complex, and they may have been intended to re main separate. The Golden House was, nonetheless, probably an overambitious project. Observers would have gained the impression that a vast complex was in hand, because the work did not proceed area by area. Though never finished, a vast number of buildings were started all around the central lake. Nero no doubt spoke with enthusiasm of the skilful marvels that were in hand.The unsympathetic may well have reacted as one scholar who wrote, The Fire gave a mortally egocentric a utocrat the chance to demand a unique monumental expression of what he considered his worth and position to be( MacDonald 31). The large remains on the Oppian Hill have by now lost intimately of their decoration. The grand apartments have been plunged in darkness since the foundations were laid for Trajans Baths. Even before that, Vitellius and his wife were disappointed by the lack of decoration and the mean equipment of the palace.The Domus Aurea was left unfinished when Nero died, and the alterations made by Otho interfered with the grand architectural conception of its creator (Colin & Shotter 55). Even so, the construction and design still excite the admiration of architects and engineers by reason of the new exploitation of space and the creation of internal vistas. Two features, in particular, impress by their artistic and architectural originality the five-sided trapezoidal coquet in the west wing, which was once matched by a similar one in the east wing, and the domed oc tangular room in the centre with its five rooms radiating from it symmetrically.As the new excavations show, the palace originally had two floors, each of which displayed east-west symmetry and was interrupted by the two open trapezoidal courts. The two courts framed the central complex of rooms around the octagon which extended through the upper storey and could probably be viewed from the adjacent upper rooms as well as the lower ones. The octagon room thus formed the focus of the whole building. It is normally identified with the main circular dining room described by historian Suetonius (Garwood 81), though there is no agreement on what elements rotated.It is notable, however, that the inside of the dome shows no traces of decoration, and that the pissing that rain into the room to the north came in at a steeper gradient than would be necessary for a nymphaeum. Hence the suggestion that some of the water turned a device hang through the opening in the dome, representing the c hanges of seasons on the vault. The two grooves on the outer surface of the dome will have served as tracks for the suspended through the opening in the dome, representing the changes of seasons on the vault.The two grooves on the outer surface of the dome will have served as tracks for the suspended device. Whatever the explanation, the study of the Domus Transitoria and the Domus Aurea shows, to an even greater degree than our examination of the coinage, that Nero was an enthusiast who threw himself into grand projects and put at their service the latest Roman technology and the near advanced artistic ideas. Neros zeal for the arts, however, did not stop at patronage and planning.If his aim of professional performance was more acceptable to the Greek stylus of thinking, his desire to achieve that standard in all the arts at once would strike even a Greek as absurd. Finally, the Domus Aurea presents a riches of architectural innovation including an exploitation of the dome to cr ate a new conception of internal space. Another dome that employed a similar emblem of buttressing wall but in a more systematic manner occurs in the octagonal room of the Domus Aurea (Turner 89).The vaults around the octagonal room were unite in a way to create a very clever series of well lit rooms. It was one of the most inventive uses of vaulting all the same created by the Romans and one that ushered in a new way of thinking about jobless and space. It also created new structural issues to be resolved. Like the hydrargyrum dome, the octagonal dome at the Domus Aurea was built within other vaulted structures, the walls of which provided buttressing for the support structure.The most innovative aspect of the design was the way that light was brought in above the haunches of the octagonal vault by means of clerestory windows. As result of the configuration, the dome had to be quite thin if there was to be enough space at its haunches for the clerestory lighting into the adjacen t rooms. The structural resolution was a more elegant form of the one employed at Baiae. The octagonal dome was buttressed with a series of eight triangular piers, each constructed above one corner of the vault so that the clerestory windows could discipline between them.At the Domus Aurea octagon, the buttressing walls on the extrados of the dome were used to accommodate windows in the haunches, which was possible because of the support from the surrounding structures but also which precluded the use of continuous step-rings. On the other hand, in the Fourth Style or intricate style, a taste for illusionism returned once again. This style became popular around the time of the Pompeian earthquake of 62 CE (Stewart 81), and it was preferred manner of mural decoration when the town was buried in volcanic ash in 79.The earliest examples, such as Room 78 in the emperor Neros fabulous Domus Aurea, of Golden House, in Rome. Although the Fourth Style architectural vistas are irrational f antasies. The viewer looks out not on cityscapes or round temples set in peri-styles but at fragments of buildings columns supporting half-pediments, double stories of columns supporting nothing at all multi-color on the same white ground as the rest of the wall. In the Fourth Style, architecture became just another motif in the painters ornamental repertoire (Strong, et al. 104).In the latest Fourth Style designs, Pompeian painters rejected the quiet elegance of the Third Style and early Fourth Style in favor of crowded and confused compositions and sometimes garish color combinations. The Ixion Room of the House of the Vettii at Pompeii was decorated in this manner just before the belt of Mount Vesuvius. The room served as a triclinium in the house the Vettius brother remodeled after the earthquake. It opened onto the peristyle. The decor of the dining room is a kind of be restored of all the previous styles, another instance of the eclecticism noted earlier as characteristic of Roman art in general.The lowest zone, for example, is one of the most successful imitations anywhere of costly multicolored imported marbles, despite the fact that the illusion is created without recourse to relief, as in the First Style. The large white panels in the corners of the room, with their delicate floral frames and floating central motifs, would fit naturally into the most elegant Third Style design. Unmistakably Fourth Style, however, are the fragmentary architectural vistas of the central and upper zones of the Ixion Room walls.They are unrelated to one another, do not constitute a unified cityscape beyond the wall, and are peopled with figures that would fasten on into the room if they took a single step forward. Among the varieties of pavement-decoration with which Fourth Style paintings were combined, the commonest remained black and white mosaics or mortar decorated with insect tesserae simple types suitable to equilibrise the polychromy of walls and ceilings . But this period also sees more examples of opus sectile in coloured marbles, used both for emblemata and in grander houses for whole floors.Such pavements accorded with the more showy side of Fourth Style taste and were clearly prized as status symbols. As in previous periods, so in the Fourth Style decorative ensembles usually show attempts to harmonize the treatment different surfaces within a room (Clarke 166). The most striking gestures in this direction were the increased use of single-color schemes. Already foreshadowed in the late Third Style, these were much favoured in the Fourth Style for the finer rooms of the house, notably dining and reception rooms. The Fourth Style period is oddly fruitful for the study of the interaction of the different media.Researchers find painting working in close relationship with both mosaic and stucco-work in order to start out the ornate effects which were currently in favour, and not surprisingly the close relationship resulted in a goo d deal of murual influence. Perhaps also emanating from the Neronian court (the graduation exercise datable instance is to be found in the earlier of the two palaces) is what became known as fourth-style Romano-Campanian wall-painting, which combines the architectural illusionism and colour experimentation of earlier styles into a theatrical, even surrealistic design.The fourth Style apparently died of exhaustion about the end of the century. With it the great age of Roman wall-painting came to an end. The future was to produce some interest and not unattractive work, but the creative thrust of the late Republic and early Empire was dissipated in a series of revivals and counter-revivals which never full recaptured the enthusiasm of the initial period.Each of the four Pompeian Style had offered something new and stimulating the First had taken the Hellenistic Masonry Style of interior decoration and turned it into lustrous patterns of abstract block work the Second had opened up the wall with grand illusions of painted architecture the Third had closed the wall once more and put emphasis on a framed picture-panel, complemented by fine, coloristic surface-ornament and the Fourth had reintroduced architectural illusionism but substituted lightness and fantasy for the solidity and logic of the Second Style.These breeding had been spearheaded by painters working in Roman Italy, and they had turned wall-painting from the poor relation of panel-painting into the most vigorous and important branch of the pictorial arts. By the second century A. D. , however, the inventiveness of Roman-Italian wall-painting was declining, and the focus of interest switches to other regions and to other media. Roman builders not only developed the arch, vault, and dome but pioneered the creative use of concrete. These innovations proved revolutionary, allowing Romans for the first time to cover immense interior spaces without inner supports.Recent scholarship on the Domus Aurea com plex has suggested that the true novelty of this complex was neither in the technical innovations lauded by some architectural historians nor in its luxurious decorations but rather its scale and location. Works Cited Champlin, Edward. Nero. Cambridge, Mass. London Belknap, 2003. Clarke, John. The Houses of Roman Italy, 100 B. C. A. D. 250 Ritual, Space, And Decoration. University of California Press, 1993. Colin, David and Shotter, Arthur. Nero. Routledge, 1997. Donald, Strong, Toynbee, Jocelyn, and Roger Ling.Roman Art. Harmondsworth Penguin Books, 1988. Garwood, Duncan. lone(a) Planet Rome. Footsccray, Vic. London Lonely Planet, 2006. Gates, Charles. Ancient Cities. Routledge, 2003. MacDonald, William Lloyd. The Architecture of the Roman Empire An Introduction Study. New Haven London Yale University Press, 1982. Stewart. Peter. Roman Art. Oxford Oxford University Press, 2004. Tacitus, Cornelius. The Works of Tacitus The Oxford Translation, Revised. Harper & Brothers, 18 60. Turner, Jane. The vocabulary of Art. Groves Dictionary, 1996.
The lamentable condition of the Amazon River is featured in the You Tube video The Amazon Dries Up. It shows study portions of the river drying up with boats stranded, fish dying because of lack of oxygen, and people traveling far in search of clean water to drink. Going through this video brought up feelings of sadness and anxiety at the same time because of the deplorable status of the environment in the area, and the apparent hopelessness of the situation.Forests have been denuded for the benefit of a few plainly with a predictably great impact in the offing. It is scary to think about the future basing from this video especially since this video was do in 2006 yet. The emphasis of the film is against deforestation and more emission of greenhouse gases which are said to be the culprits behind the drought in the Amazon.Environmental abasement (Ferris & Stein, Ch. 15) has emerged to become one of the worlds major social problems as humans have acknowledged its set up like globa l warming (Ferris & Stein, Ch. 15) and mood change. The problem is actually one that is of a major dimension because many people will be affected if these problems continue to worsen. As we feel the effects of global warming, not a lot of the worlds inhabitants may survive and some species may become extinct. Furthermore, climate change can work about devastations of unknown magnitudes.Just the recent flooding and earthquakes which occurred this year are some typical examples of unexpected destruction to the environment, to man and property. Furthermore, ongoing extinction of species may cause ecological imbalance which may also result to other unanticipated results which are still unknown, and may never be reversed. The environment postulate to be everyones concern. Taking things one step at a time will not bring anyone to the goal immediately, yet slowly but surely, the goal can be reached.Small simple steps like the 3 Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, making use of car pools, conser ving electricity will all provide up to make the goal of making the environment more habitable an attainable possibility. The worst case scenario is one where the leaders we look up to have the appearance _or_ semblance to be passive in their stance regarding these issues. Nevertheless, it is still a conglomeration of efforts which will be the best way to address these environmental issues. Works Cited Ferris, Kerry & Stein, Jill, The original World An Introduction to Sociology New York W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Print.
Tuesday, May 21, 2019
blot philosophy Its torrid the promo for the channel has become everyday lingo of theyouth. Its Hot Most Popular wirelesscommunication Channel amongst Youth at the 2nd Global Youth Marketing Forum, the tag line its Hot conveys that the brand is young, exciting. tuner Mirchi is also very adaptive as it customizes itself based on the city it is in. Radio Mirchi Chennai is typically in Tamil and its slogan What a Fun has bowled its fans over. Radio Mirchi Mumbai is dominated by Marathi. Thus, the language, conclusion and region be carefully kept in mind by everyone from the RJs to the producers.Radio Mirchi is truly an innovative communicate station. It caters to the needs of all sections of society in spite of its young feel. For example, Chatpati Baatein is a show for women, specifically housewives, worldly out of their wits after a long day of work. Similarly, On the Move is for executives and the movers and shakers of the corporate world. Music, sc gaga shows and inte rviews are enjoyed by the youth and are relayed throughout the day at regular intervals. It keeps customer informed. Willingness to economic aid customer through different programs. They are having gender base segmentation, age group base, etc.In the early good morning they are targeting to the rare persons because they likes bhajans & kirtans. In the early morning they stared this programme at 5 am to 7 am. They are providing gift vouchers, gifts couple tickets, etc. So consumer or the listeners are attract and listen the radio mirchi. They are using Clustered Preferences. Radio Mirchi targeted to the college students and teenagers so they are playing hot & new songs. They are also targeting the mature person & they like to listen songs. Radio Mirchi are playing this kind of old songs in the night in the show Purani Jeans.For many different occasions Mirchi came up with unique post or any kind of attractive show. For eg. New Years, Diwali, R. D. Burmans birthday etc. customers are highly attracted to all these innovative shows and participated. It uses the tagline Sakat hotmaga, Mirchi SunneWale Always Khush, Its hot. Radio Mirchi promotes its radio station in different cities in their local language. The punch line of Radio Mirchi (Mirchi sunnewale always khush) focuses on its customer and the quality of music provided by them. They try to come up with new innovative ideas thereby making their radio the most like station with largest listenership.There latest innovation is in the style of radio jockeys. Generally, radio jockeys speak non-stop quite spendthrift entertaining the masses. Their way of telling jokes attracts people. It delivers the best combination of innovative content and interesting initiatives. Their programs SHOW eon which target TARGET AUDIENCE, Female oriented Khoobsurat , Quizzes related to Total Filmy bollywood, Sunset Samosa , Play old music Purani Jeans, Ask solution for Dr. Love relationship problems . -Naina Sharma Roll no. -9 35
Monday, May 20, 2019
Contemporary and Pervasive Issues How leave al unrivalled keen issues affect lead in a demarcation? Word Count 5671 In this essay I am waiver to discuss how in effect(p) issues rear affect lead in a clientele. In lay out to resultant role this question the essay will start by giving a brief introduction into the two topics d tippying cardship and lineage ethical motive. I will then aim to successfully link them by considering the personal credit line of whether attracters should concern themselves with ethical issues or whether do as much money as potential should be their main consideration.leaders has many a(prenominal) different meanings and in that location develop been many different compartmentalization systems used to define the dimensions of leading. Inf portrayal as Stogdill (1974) demonstrateed out, at that place are al around as many different renderings of attractionship as there are multitude who subscribe tried to define it. One popular definition used for this subject is that leadinghip whitethorn be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward tendency setting and goal achievement(Stogdill, 1974).This definition suggests that it is not a characteristic but is an gist that takes place between a loss leader and his or her followers and that there are three cheeks to leadership. Firstly, it involves lure in that leaders induce their followers to be wear in a authoritative way. The instant aspect is that leadership occurs in a group context and finally that leadership includes attention to goals, which a leader must direct their followers to achieve. Over the years there commence been many studies and theories formed on leadership.The first, which dominated until the late 1940s, was the Trait Approach, which rationalizeed on leaders and not followers. It assumed that leaders had certain traits, such as intelligence and integrity and that they ar e natural and not made. However, this b commit on failed to take situations into cast and recent research has proven that traits alone back endnot account for effectiveness. Following this was the style approach, which focuses on what leaders do and how they act towards subordinates rather than characteristics. This era defines leadership styles as either Autocratic, democratic or laissez faire.However, this approach fails to risk which of these leadership styles is most effective in e rattling situation. Following this was the situational and contingency theories, which assume that different situations subscribe different types of leadership. However it assumes that people foot learn to become effective leaders and does not adequately explain the link between styles and situation. The Situational theory relates quatern leadership styles Directing, Coaching, Supporting and delegating to followers pushiness for them (Gill, 200648).However, the model assumes around(prenomin al) flexibility of style and the world power to diagnose the situation and the style that is makeed. In 1980s the refreshed Leadership approach was introduced, which via medias tidy sumary, charismatic and transformational leadership theories. Transformational leadership occurs when leaders raise peoples motivation to act and create a sense of higher purpose (Gill, 200636). Similarly and published around the same cadence was the theory of Charismatic leadership, who act in unique shipway that have specific charismatic set up on their followers.This stage provides a broader view of leadership that augments opposite models and places a strong emphasis on leaders postulate, value and morals. However, due to the wide place that it c everyplaces it lacks conceptual clarity and it is difficult to define the parameters of transformational leadership (Northouse, 2004185). Finally, in the late 1990s Post-charismatic and Post-transformational theories emerged, which focuses on lead ership as a community and both leaders and followers working to arse abouther. Leadership is a process that is similar to management in many ways and many of the functions of management are included in the definition of leadership.This was argued by Yukl (1989), who express when managers are obscure in influencing a group to meet its goals, they are multiform in leadership. When leaders are involved in preparation, organizing, staffing and controlling, they re involved in management. Both processes involve influencing a group of individuals toward a goal attainment. Both management and leadership involve influence, working with people, meeting goals and many other similar functions. However, there is a distinct difference between leadership and management and the main functions of the two are instead dissimilar.It was argued by Kotter (1990) that the function of management is to provide consecrate and consistency to make-ups, whereas the primary function of leadership is to ca-ca change and movement. Whilst managers plan and budget, a leader creates a vision and sets strategies, instead of controlling and problem resolve a leader motivates and inspires his followers. In addition to this, Bennis and Nanus (1985) made the distinction very clear, managers are people who do things adjust and leaders are people who do the right things. Although it argued that the two are very different it is for this reason that both are considered for an organization to be a success. Without management outcomes back end be meaning slight or misdirected and without leadership the outcome fecesnister be stifling and bureaucratic. This was the opinion of Warner polish off (198668), who said that For clarity of goals and direction, managers need leaders. For indispensable help in r severallying goals, leaders need managers. A win question that is often raised on the topic of leadership is whether leaders are innate(p) or made?Whilst some would argue that It is not a matter of whether leaders are born or made. They are born and made (Conger 2004), it is a topic that has caused grand debate. Many would argue that leadership is innate (inborn) and that the character, style and competence needed to be a leader is infact genetic and it ceasenot be developed. However, others have argued that leadership is not down to genetics alone but that it can infact be developed over a period of time by surroundings and experiences.This is the opinion argued by Winston (Winston 2003), who says that we are not just the product of our genes environment has a huge impact but in a mysterious way. A further aspect to this question is whether leadership can be taught. thither are many opinions on this matter but the tendency is towards agreeing that, while little if anything can be taught, it can be learnt with development, growth and practise (Gill, 2006272). A job operates according to the vision and values of its leader. A leader has many roles within an o rganization, which can be lynchpin to its abundant-term success.The first of these is to provide an overall direction by defining and communicating a meaningful and attractive vision of the afterlife and a mission through which the organization will pursue it (Gill, 200696). This direction which may stem a long way into the future will need to consider competitors, changes in tastes and current standing in the market. In relation to this it is a leaders state to create a strong and positive compositional culture with its followers having shared vision and values, which can result in an effective organization.A further role of a leader is to develop, get commitment to and ensure the successful implementation of strategies (Gill, 2006176). This is one of the most important roles for a leader and involves them planning where they urgency to be in the future and how they are going to get there, for model by acquisitions or moving into new geographical markets. Another role of a leader in duty is to vest employees to be able to do what involve to be done. In order to do this a leader must give them the k like a shotledge, skills, authority and freedom to manage themselves and be accountable for their behavior.If a leader successfully empowers his employs it can lead to both job satisf do and enhanced organizational carry throughance in many ways. Similarly it is an important role of a leader to influence, motivate and inspire employees to reach the companies goals. One of the key factors that will determines whether it is achieved or falters will be the ability of the leader in these three areas. Finally if an organization is to continue to prosper, people development must be high on a leaders agenda, by identifying the most talented people coming through and making sure that they are developed for major roles in the future.Ensuring that there is a continued stream of talent developed is a key factor in sustainable progress and achievement. An effective leader has the ability to successfully carry out all of these roles. The second topic that this essay involves is parentage ethics, which has been described by some as a passing flair which will come and go and can and so be safely ignored or discharged (Vallance, 1995 4) However, commerce scandals of the late 1980s such as Guiness and Blue Arrow and the results of these have made businesses witting of the importance of their reputation and the need to think seriously about ethical issues.There have been numerous definitions of ethics, which involves systemizing, defending and recommending concepts of right and wrong behaviour and includes principles and values of what is fair or unfair and proper or improper. It has been argued that there is simply one ethics, one set of rules of morality, one order that of individual behaviour in which the same rules apply to everyone alike (Drucker 2007).A popular definitions is that ethics deals with values, with slap-up and pestile ntial with right and wrong, we cannot fend off involvement in ethics, for what we do-and what we dont do- is always a practical subject of ethical rating (Singer, 1993 v). There are various theories and approaches to ethics and ethical conclusion-making but the two major view points that come forward are consequentailism and non-consequentialism. Consequentialism is where ethical decisions are based primarily on calculating the good in terms of consequences (Preston, 2007 36).The most widely accepted form of this is Utilitarianism, which was introduced by Jeremy Bentham in the late 19th century. This theory emphasises blessedness or utility as a desirable goal for human choice or action and argues that moral rules should seek to secure the greatest good for the greatest number of people (Preston, 2007 36). However, there have been some objections to this theory and the question as to how happiness and utility can be measured. It withal whole caboodle against the interests o f minorities and groups that do not measure up to the criteria of usefulness and can justify the violation of human rights (Preston, 2007 36).An casing of this is the exclusion of a disabled sister from a school as they are disruptive. This would be reassert on utilitarian grounds as to leave such a disruptive child in the class would not be beneficial to the majority of students. The second of these points that occurs in ethical theory is non-consequential. This enjoins us to do the right thing, simply because it is the right thing, intrinsically (Preston, 2007 40). The most influential figure promoting this view was Immanuel Kant. He argued that as individuals we intuitively know what is right or wrong, through the categorical imperatives, which are Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or that of another, always as an end and never as a means solely Act only on the maxim through which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law. Act only so that the will through its maxims could regard itself at the same time as universally law giving case (Preston 200741) This Kantian theory has been very influential, especially concerning the debate of rights and justice due to the importance that it places on every individual and because it is not open to persuasion by pragmatic considerations.However, there have been some criticisms to Kants approach as he places too much reliance on human rationality. Furthermore, it does not provide an say to the problem of how to decide between two conflicting duties and how to obey different bur every bit downright rules. For example, do not break promises and do not kill are absolute rules, however it is possible for a situation to occur where these rules conflict and that by not breaking a promise, someone is killed. The focus of this essay is on Business ethics in particular.Though the theories that have been mentioned are relevant, they are bear on primarily with personal ethics and do not address directly the kind of ethical problems that bear within a business context (Vallance, 19954). Within an physical composition, ethics is seen as everyones business and can be complex and have more than one meaning. Firstly, it is the application of full general ethical rules to business behaviour and secondly, it can be the rules of business by which business activities are judged.Business morality can be defined as coming to know what is right or wrong in the workplace and doing what is right this is in regards to effects of products/services and in transactionhip with stakeholders (McNamara, 20067) and can cover a wide range of aspects from quality and treatment of employees to pricing. When it comes to business having an ethical obligation, many would argue that this is not the case. Indeed Milton Friedman (Friedman, 1970) said only people can have responsibilities.A corporation is an artificial person and in this sense may have artificial responsibilities, but business as a whole cannot be said to have responsibilities, even in this vague sense. With this in mind, it would as well be argued that it is of little importance for leaders to consider ethical issues when making decisions. Infact, leaders who have ethical consciences have been described as unplanned puppets of the intellectual forces that have been undermining the basis of a free society these past decades (Friedman, 1970).This business line is that a business and therefore its leaders have one purpose, and that is to make as much profit as possible, with everything else macrocosm secondary. Freidman said, He (the executive) is an employee of the owners of the business. He has direct responsibility to his employers. That responsibility is to conduct the business in accordance with their desires, which generally will be to make as much money as possible while conformist to the basic rules of society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom (Friedman, 1970).He believed that this was the case for all businesses with the only exceptions beingness schools and hospitals where a leaders objective would be the rendering of services. One of the beliefs of this argument is that ethical responsibility as preached and practised by many marks an acceptance and endorsement of views and quests largely presented by anti business groups that are hostile to the market economy and are far from representing the general view of the average consumer (Andersen, 2004 22).In addition to this fact a further problem is that in order for a leader to have an ethical conscience it usually comes at some bell to the business and therefore is not in the interest of the owners of the organization. An example of this is that a leader would refrain from increasing the worth of the product in order to contribute to the social objective of preventing inflation, even though a terms increase would benefit both the corporation and its owners. A similar example is that ay leaders use great essences of money and resources to reduce taint beyond the amount that is required by law in order to meet its responsibility to the environment and gain a reputation as being an environmentally lucky beau monde. This was a measure taken by Satellite broadcaster BSkyB who have been carbon neutral since may 2006 through a combination of utilize renewable energy and offsetting its remaining electric arcs, but at a cost to the caller-up. In each of these examples and in the case of other ethical activities a great amount of money is either spent or compromised.Many would argue that by doing this a leader is pass other peoples money for a general social interest, which could be viewed as passing unethical. For example, carrying out an ethical activity that would have a high cost, such as reducing emission would reduce profits and therefore stockholder would see a reduce in their returns on investments. In addition to this if a leaders ethical actio ns raise the price to customers, he is spending the customers money and if the cost of the leaders actions have to result in lowering the wages of some employees, he is spending their money.In these cases it would be fair to say that not only would it be having a detrimental effect on the caller-out profits but would besides have a minus and unethical effect on both internal and external stakeholders, who may desert the company for a competitor that less scrupulous in exercising their social responsibilities. In addition to this it means that a leader in effect becomes a humanity employee even though he remains in reality an employee of a private company.There is a further problem with leaders deciding that a company is to become more ethically aware as it involves great change in the way a company practices, its values and its organizational culture. Many of these actions that need to be taken to implement an ethical practice can incur change magnitude costs that may not be re couped through change magnitude sales and have no indorsement of returns. Furthermore, some decisions and choices made with an ethical conscience can result in short term negative impacts such as a decrease in sales, revenue and profit, increased cost for employee welfare and a decrease in stock prices.Moreover, the vast majority of companies are still failing to get their marrow across (The Guardian, 2004). With these costs in mind, especially in the current economic climate, the importance of a leader implementing an ethical culture to a business could be questioned. In addition to this leading a business ethically may involve compromising short term wins for the sake of a more long term view (Andersen, 2004 22). This is not beneficial for a leader who is amenable for immediate results, peculiarly if the short-term wins that are compromised due to ethical issues risk financial loss or even immediate failure.This may mean that a leader may have to accept higher prices on goods , parts and manufacturing in order to remain ethical. An example of this is that Tesco, the UKs largest supermarket was using an Indian sweatshop to produce its clothes, which was paying its workers just 16p an hour. This provider was changed in order for the company to appear more ethical and inturn cost Tesco money. This can be particularly hard in a market where there is a large amount of competition at both a national and international level.In order to compete a company needs to be able to offer the lowest price possible to its consumers but in order to financial backing its ethical stance a company can not compromise on its quality of suppliers and raw materials and therefore sees increased costs. Another consideration is that when the corporation grows beyond the direct influence of its leader, we must go through with the ethical consequence of size and geographical deployment. The control and employment of all policies, but especially that realized for corporate ethics, b ecomes difficult (Andrews, 1989 7).This demonstrates that as long as an organisation remains small enough to be directly influenced by the chief executives leadership, certain results, such as ethical approach can be traced to his determination that they occur. However, as the organisation grows and becomes decentralised with worldwide operations the power and influence that the Chief decision maker has is reinterpreted and diffused (Andrews, 1989 260). As a result leaders of have to be appointed in each location and these persons may not share the determination and beliefs of their chief executive on ethical matters.As a result it is hard to standardise a whole companys ethical approach. In relation to this heathenish differences and different business practices around the world can present challenges for businesses that are trying to be ethical. Having considered the preceding(prenominal) argument there are some flaws to Friedmans approach. He suggests that a leader should con centrate on profit alone as long as it is within the law. However, the law does not define what is morally right and what is legal may be unethical. Many people would argue that this is an important point as good business ethics conjure ups good business. This was the findings of some well-known authorities such as Baumhart, Brener and Molander, who believed that only those businesses that conduct activities on ethical grounds can develop on a long-term basis. This is also the stakeholder view that businesses will not make money if they do not take heed of their stakeholders CSR is spirit after your stake holders and is good business practice. This is the reason why it is important that leaders are not merely concerned with profit but also with promoting an ethical practise.Firstly, leaders who follow the principles of ethics in the conduct of business, motivates others also to follow the same principles (Paliwal, 2006 10). This can improve both employees and the organizations mo tivation and morale, which was discussed earlier as one of the main roles of a leader. This is because conducting business in an ethical manner can produce a feeling of doing things right and this can become an almost tangible positive ambience within the organisation and can create a culture with a sense of community and belonging for employees, (Andersen, 2004 7).The result of this is increased loyalty and productivity, which can result in an improved in free-enterprise(a) advantage. An example of a company that treats its employees well and is benefited in return is John Lewis. All 69,000 employees of the company have a share in it and despite seeing pre tax profits fall by 26% this year they still stipendiary their employees bonuses worth 13% of their salaries.In addition to this if a leader and a company demonstrates that it is unwilling to compromise its ethical values then they are regarded as trustworthy by both customers and their employees and this can promote productivi ty, innovation, employee development and increase employee attraction, which are again some of the main roles of a leader. This is vital to leaders as a study by Covey discovered that the average corporation loses half its employees within four years, and the cost of recruiting, training and getting new ones up to speed can be detrimental to an organisation. (Andersen, 2004 9). besides it is the leaders of a company that are responsible for its conduct and it is their actions that determine the companys ethical standards (Andrews, 1989 72). If a leaders system is to define and communicate ethical position then it can act as a competitive advantage as it is an effective way of ensuring customer loyalty and also the companys ability to attract new customers. Customers are now more discerning and better educated than ever and want a product that not only serves its purpose but also is produced by an environmentally responsible company.If a consumer understands and sees tangible evide nce that they are contributing to something beyond the profits a company and its owner, it is a strong motivator for both their custom and their loyalty. An example of a leader who understood the importance of an ethical company and an ethical product was Dame Anita Roddick, founder of The Body Shop. The company was one of the first to remove the use of ingredients tested on animals, promote fair trade and also channelled a share of the cost of the product back to the original producer of the raw material.By doing this she created a unique selling point as an ethical company and therefore a company that consumers are proud to buy from. Furthermore, if an organisation is known to be ethical it gives the impression to the customer that they too will be fairly interact as when ethical conduct is displayed it puts some kind of trust and confidence in relationship (Paliwal, 2006 9). An example of this is that prices reflect the real value of what is being bought.As previously mention, being ethical can also help to attract new customer, who will hopefully become loyal in time. This is because customers are loose to so many marketing campaigns that they are wary of which they should trust. However, if a leader has successfully managed to position an organisation with having ethical values and integrity then customers uncertainty is reduced, they are more trusting of the company and less afraid of purchasing its products, which meets leaders objectives.This was proved in a survey conducted in immature York in 1995, which indicated, when quality, service and price are equal, 90% claimed that the best reputation for social responsibility would determine their decision to buy. (Andersen, 2004 12). Therefore an ethical company should see an increase in sales, which is always part of a leaders strategy. A further factor for leaders to consider is that studies have shown a positive link between being ethical and improved financial performance (Maignan, 1987), which is ultimately the main aim of an organisation.ethical motive in business can be related to quality of management, quality of products, innovativeness and good responsibility towards the community, all of which lead to admiration, good will and a good reputation for the company. An example of leaders who saw the importance of a good ethical reputation are Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, founders of Ben & Jerrys, who set up the sustainable Caring Dairy initiative to helps farmers and also took measures to reduce energy use.According to Ferrell, Maignan and Loe companies that are perceived positively in the market place perform better than others. (Andersen, 2004 13). Although this statement and other studies could be questioned as to what extent admiration is due to ethics, it can be said that an ethical approach to business is what contributes to a positive perception and reputation and can therefore be linked with financial improvements. A further example of this is that IAG (Insuran ce Australia Group Ltd), who work with neighborhoods to improve their facilities and reduce crime.This not only gives them a good reputation as a company that cares about the environment but also benefits them in a second way as it reduces insurance claims and therefore reduces their payouts and equally benefits both the community and the company. Finally, leaders need to consider being a company with ethical values because investors and shareholders are now using a companys ethical stance as criteria to evaluate investments and stocks. An example of this is the specifically designed sub index of the London Stock Exchange, the FTSE4Good (FTSE Financial times Stock Exchange). (Andersen, 2004 19).To be included in this index, constituents must be screened according to the criteria of the FTSE4Good, which covers environmental sustainability, social issues and stakeholder relations and human rights. Therefore having a favourable ethical profile can attract investors and not having on e can deter them. In addition to this, for the government ethical standards of a business are now a key factor in the procurement of grants and influence. Having looked at these benefits, a leader also needs to consider the strength of being ethical by looking at the dangers and probable penalties of unethical business behaviour.As a society we have access to a wide chassis of information on organisations. As a result, there are constantly court cases against companies for unethical behaviour, for example in 2007 cruise company Carnival was being sued over several cases of mistreatment of workers and the covering up of environmental damage. Settling these claims can cost billions of pounds, can lead to bankruptcy and the damage to reputation can be irreparable. A further example of this is that if a customer is treated unfairly then this bad reputation will be passed on by word of mouth.In relation to this a further factor that leaders need to consider when creating a business str ategy is that unethical behaviour in manufacturing can lead to bad reputation. An example of this is the recent case with Primark, who were discovered to be using suppliers in Southern India who were using child labour. Although they claimed that they were unaware of this situation it still created a great deal of bad advancement for the company. Negative publicity can equate to decreased competitive advantage, increased costs as companies have to increase public relations and advertising.It can also have effects on sales, profits, morale and the day to day caterpillar track of the business. In addition to this a bad reputation cannot be easily changed and it consumers suspicion of a companys intentions and future actions. In relation to this journalists writing about companies tend to fall victim of the so called Halo effect (Andersen, 2004 19), which means that a company that has a bad reputation tend to be seen negatively whatever they do. As the media have the power to make or break companies it is essential that leaders ensure that they are ethical and that there reputations remain intact.In this sense ethical behavior can be seen as a form of insurance against regulatory acts. An example of a company that have taken this on board is Marks and Spencer, who have recently launched a new Per Una intimate apparel range that is carbon neutral and is produced in an eco-factory as they become more successful in listening to what their customers want. A final problem to leaders of having an unethical approach is that there are always force groups and special interest group such as Greenpeace waiting to launch global campaigns against companies that act unethically, which can affect both the organisation and its chances of survival.An example of this is that in 2003 the Barclay twins, who were the two new leaders of Littlewoods mail order and clothing store, withdrew the companies membership of the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI), which was put in place to s top companies from using child or forced labor. This not only resulted in the sacking employees but was also provoked large volumes of criticism for charities, unions and government ministers all of which impacted on the companys reputation. This increased government interest can also lead to regulations that create rigid trade and less freedom.Having looked at the two topics leadership and business ethics in some detail, it is clear to see that there is an important link between the two. A business operates according to the visions and values of its leader and whilst some may see business ethics as a fad leaders need to be aware that there is a high demand for ethical behaviour in our society today. It is fair to say that the objective of most companies, as Friedman said is to earn as much money as possible. Therefore, as a leader, that person is an employee of the owners of the business and so has a primary responsibility to them to conduct the business in line with their wishes. In addition to this there is a strong argument as to why a leader should not consider ethical issues as a vital part of their job. Many people share the skepticisms of Milton Friedman and Adam Smiths about the benefits that can be expected from those who affected to trade for the public good. This is a fact that has been discussed in the essay and the implementing a practicing ethical business can cost a company, for example, spending money on reducing pollution costs and choosing more expensive but ethical suppliers.In Friedmans book Capitalism and Freedom, he sums up this argument by saying that there is one and only one ethical responsibility of businessto use it resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engages in open and free competition without deception or fraud (Friedman, 1970). However, the other side of this argument is that in order for organization to survive in a competitive a nd changing environment, leaders must develop strong ethical standards and successfully implement them throughout the company.By handicraft in an ethical manner a leader will see a wide variety of benefits and effects on business practices, such as increasing sales, retaining employees, reducing litigation and in some cases increasing a companys profit. In addition to this, another testament to its viability is that despite being describes as a passing phase, business ethics which emerged in the 1970s has constantly gained more and more awareness and support, making it one of the longest surviving management fads (Andersen, 2004 24).Having considered this fact and all of the benefits, it is a hard for a leader to argue against the merits of an ethical approach to business. Overall, I believe that in order to remain competitive and to plow the survival of a business an organization must respect and regard their social and ethical responsibility as well as maintaining profitability as a central goal. It is fair to say that good ethics is good business since nowadays it can be directly linked to the companys success.Moreover, good ethics is good business because business partners, suppliers and customers expect and presevere business relationships that are upright and responsible. This is a factor that is going to become increasingly more important as consumers become more aware of ethical issues and the need for them to be considered, e. g. the increase in consumer awareness of carbon footprint. Therefore an ethical reputation will be important to the success of a company and it is a leaders job to ensure that ethics is part of a companies strategy and is successfully implemented.References K. R. Andrews, 1989, Ethics in Practice Managing the honourable Corporation, Harvard Business School Publishing Division, pg 7, 71, 72, 260 R Gill, 2006, Theory and practice of Leadership, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg. 36, 48, 96, 176, 272 Stogdill, R. M (1974), Handbook of Leadership A Survey of Theory and Research. sensitive York Free take quoted in P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 2 P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 185 P. F.Drucker, 2007, The Practise of Management, Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd 2Rev Ed edition quoted in M. Paliwal, 2006, Business Ethics New date International Ltd, pg 4 Kotter J. P (1990) A force for change How leadership differs from management. New York Free Press quoted in P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 8 Bennis, W. G & Nanus, B (1985) Leaders The strategies for winning charge. New York Harper & Row quoted in P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 8 Burke, W.W (1986) Leadership as empowering others. San Francisco, CAJossey Bass, pg 68 quoted in R Gill, 2006, Theory and practice of Leadership, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 27 Conger, J. A (2004) evolution leadership capability Whats inside the black box. Academy of management executive, 18 (3), pg 136 Winston, R 2003, Human Instinct Paper presented at the sixth Annual Leadership conference, Ross on Wye, 23rd-24th folk quoted in R Gill, 2006, Theory and practice of Leadership, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg. 73 P. Singer, 1993, A colleague to Ethics, Blackwell, p, v. N. Preston, 2007, Understanding Ethics, league Press 3rd Revised edition, pg 36, 40, 41, 42 E. Vallance, 1995, Business Ethics at Work, Cambridge university Press, pg 4 Milton Freidman (1970) The Social province of Business is to Increase its Profits quoted in T. Beauchamp and N. Bowie, 2004, Ethical Theory and Business, 7th ed. , London, Pearson, p. 51. M. Paliwal, 2006, Business Ethics New Age International Ltd, pg 7, 9, 10 McNamara, 2006 quoted in M. Paliwal, 2006, Business Ethics New Age International Ltd, pg 7 T.Donaldson, Ethics in Business A New Look quoted in M Paliwal, 2006, Business Ethics Ne w Age International Ltd, pg 9 Yukl, G. A (1989), Leadership in organisations, (2nd ed), Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice antechamber quoted in P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, pg 10 B. Andersen, ASQ Mission, Bringing Business Ethics to manner Achieving Corporate Social Responsibility, Pg 7, 9, 12, 13, 19, 22,24 Maignin, 1987 quoted in B. Andersen, ASQ Mission, Bringing Business Ethics to Life Achieving Corporate Social Responsibility, Pg 13 www. FTSE4Good. com http//www. guardian. co. uk/business/2004/nov/02/ethicalbusiness. money, Companies ethical reports branded ineffective, Tuesday 2nd November 2004, Oliver Balch http//www. cityam. com/index. php? news=16306, Tesco in sweatshop scandal. 26/6/08 http//www. guardian. co. uk/business/2008/jun/24/primark. retail, Is this the end for Primark, The Guardian, Tuesday 24th June 2008, Leo Hickman http//www. guardian. co. uk/business/2003/feb/01/ethicalshopping. globalisationLittlewoods dro ps ethical trading code, The Guardian, Saturday 1st February 2003, Simon Bowers and Julia Finch http//www. guardian. co. uk/business/2007/sep/02/5, Named and shames, cities ethical dunces, The Observer, Sunday 2nd September 2007, Heather Stewart and Zoe Wood http//www. guardian. co. uk/lifeandstyle/2008/jul/25/ethicalfashion, Can fashion play fair? , The Guardian, Friday 25th July 2008, Leo Hickman Bibliography K. R. Andrews, 1989, Ethics in Practice Managing the Moral Corporation, Harvard Business School Publishing Division Simon Blackburn, 2001, Ethics a very short introduction, Oxford press Inc New York R Gill, 2006, Theory and practice of Leadership, SAGE Publications Ltd P. G Northouse, 2004, Leadership Theory and Practice, SAGE Publications Ltd, Conger, J. A (2004) Developing leadership capability Whats inside the black box. Academy of management executive, 18 (3) E. Vallance, 1995, Business Ethics at Work, Cambridge university Press M Paliwal, 2006, Business Ethics New Age International Ltd P. Singer, 1993, A Companion to Ethics, Blackwell B. Andersen, 2004, Bringing Business Ethics to Life Achieving Corporate Social Responsibility, ASQ Mission J. Gallos, 2008, Business Leadership, Jossey Bass, A Wiley slump K Grint, 2005, Leadership Limits and Possibilities, Palgrave Macmillan R. N Kanungo, M Mendonca, 1996, Ethical Dimensions of Leadership, SAGE Publications Ltd B. Harvey, 1994, Business Ethics A European Approach, Prentice Hall International UK Ltd P. Griseri, 1998, Managing Values Ethical Change in Organisations, Macmillan Business J. N. Behrman, 1988, Essays on Ethics in Business and the Professions, Prentice Hall V. E. Henderson, 1992, Whats Ethical in Business? , McGraw Hill Inc P. Wright, managerial Leadership, Routledge N. Preston, 2007, Understanding Ethics, Federation Press 3rd Revised edition.
Sunday, May 19, 2019
Nineteenth blow Short Stories is a collection of tales from the nineteen hund rednesss. This essay will concentrate on just wizard of these stories. It will include a thorough analysis of the bill including my views and opinions towards the language, imagery and setting that the author uses. The story I begin chosen to analyse is The Nightingale and the Rose, by Oscar Wilde. This is bingle of many childrens stories that he wrote, as he is well known to have used the form of fairy tale to reflect on modern life and to debate ideas. The Nightingale and the Rose is a very poignant story following the fore of love.The theme is conveyed in this story through the actions of the Nightingale. It demonstrates how one life would sacrifice itself in order to actualize a nonher happy. From the Nightingales point of view, this is a tragi entreaty ironic story. For she thinks that the school-age child must be a avowedly lover she thinks that he would give anything for one night with the Professors daughter. She said that she would dance with me if I brought her red roses yet for sine qua non of a red rose is my life made wretched, the Nightingale hears him cry and on this evidence totally she bases her opinion Here at last is a true lover.When in fact the only feelings the Student has for the Professors daughter are those of material love. He is only interested in her beauty. He says to himself She has form that cannot be denied to her but then he says She would not sacrifice herself for others, which is exactly what the Nightingale is ab proscribed to do for him. She is voluntary to sacrifice her life for love for the Student to be able to spend one night with the misfire he supposedly admires. An interesting point to note is when the Student mentions that the Professors daughter has some beautiful notes in her voice.What a pity it is that they do not mean anything, or do any practical good. at one time Nightingales are renowned for having beautiful voices, but the Student does not appreciate the wonderful art of music. A few paragraphs before these lines the Nightingale sings to the Student telling him of how she intends to sacrifice her life for him be happy you shall have your red rose. I will build it out of music by moonlight, and stain it with my own hearts-blood. Although he cannot understand them, these words are, in fact, deeply meaningful to the Student.And as for music doing no practical good, well, what would you call the outcome of the red rose? The Nightingale died and the rose was born. Music made that red rose. The Student does not realise how wrong his judgements are. We find out that the only true lover was in fact the Nightingale. She was the only one with sincere feelings, and she was prepared to sacrifice her life for those feelings, even though she knew she would not gain anything from it. The fact that she was doing it for love, and that she was fashioning someone happy, was enough for her. She was really the only one who deserved love the only one worthwhile of it.The Nightingale was love. She went to the greatest extremes to find a red rose for the Student to give to the Professors daughter. She flew all roughly the garden trying to find a red rose. She flew to the centre of the grass-plot, and round the old sun-dial, and finally beneath the Students window, where she lastly found a red rose tree. But the tree was damaged, and would not bear a red rose. the only way the Nightingale could obtain a red rose from this tree, would be to build it out of music by moonlight, and stain it with her own hearts-blood and that is what she did.The story is set in a garden of phantasy it is full of talking creatures and trees not unlike the Garden of Eden in the Bible, which had a talking snake. by chance the author used a garden because in the Bible it is very symbolic, and its story has many lessons and meanings. maybe that was what Oscar Wilde was trying to convey in his writing.