Thursday, December 26, 2019

Essay on The All American Girls Professional Baseball League

The All American Girls Professional Baseball League Before we told our daughters that they could be anyone, or anything they wanted to be, we told them that they could only be what was acceptable for women to be, and that they could only do things that were considered ladylike. It was at this time, when the nation was frenzied with the business of war, that the women of the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League decided that they could do and be whatever it was that they chose. These women broke free of the limitations that their family and society had set for them, and publicly broke into what had been an exclusively male sport up until that time. To understand the significance of the league (which will†¦show more content†¦Suddenly women were being called from their kitchens to work in the factories, being told that it was their patriotic duty. The famous Rosie the Riveter image arose from this movement. Rosie became a new image for women, being portrayed as strong, tough, and attractive. It was from this v ery image that the idea for the league was born. The league was the brainchild of Philip K. Wrigley, president of the Wrigley chewing gum company, and owner of the Chicago Cubs National League baseball team. Wrigley was concerned with the future of baseball. The major leagues had already lost more than half of their players to the military. The minor leagues were even harder hit. By the start of the 1943 season, more than 3,000 minor leaguers had joined the service or the war effort. Only nine of the nations 26 minor leagues had enough men left to play. Aside from this reason, there was concern over the continuation of baseball by several public figures, including President Roosevelt. It was thought that because of the long hours and demanding work of the war effort that it was important for the American people to have a way to blow off steam. In the fall of 1942, Wrigley assigned a three-man team from the Cubs organization to look into developing a professional baseball league for women. His theoryShow MoreRelatedWomen in Baseball1677 Words   |  7 PagesBaseball, some would argue, is America’s favorite past time. Many can recall their experiences as they enjoyed the game as a child and then continue to share it with their children. The sport has brought us many great moments such as when Jackie Robinson broke racial barriers as the first African American to play in the major leagues. When one thinks of professional baseball, many times, names of greats such as Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, and Willie Mays come to mind. What many fans over look about America’sRead MoreThe Jackie Robinson1285 Words   |  5 Pages The mens baseball league was in trouble when World War II started. The fans of baseball and citizens of the U.S. Did not like the idea of men getting paid to play baseball while loved ones sent to war so a certain Philip Wrigley owner of wrigleys gum and the Chicago cubs didnt think baseball would last. Shortly after Pearl Harbor got bombed by the Japanese and most of the male players went off to serve our country. The league owner wanted to end baseball but president Franklin DelanoRead MoreWhen America entered into World War II, several major league baseball executives started a new800 Words   |  4 PagesAmerica entered into World War II, several major league baseball executives started a new professional league with women players. They created a new league in order to maintain baseball in the public eye while the majority of men were away. The All-American Girls Professional Baseball League was founded by Philip K. Wrigley which existed from 1943 to 1954. During t he leagues history, over 600 women played ball. AAGPBL players were recruited from all over the country and Canada through the Cubs’ scoutingRead MoreAnthropology : The First Day Of Class1507 Words   |  7 Pagesstudy of nonindustrial peoples but it was much more. According to the American Anthropology Association, Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present. I realized that many social science focus on one single society such as the United States. While, anthropology offers a unique cross-cultural perspective, constantly comparing the customs of one society with those of others (pg. 1). In class, we watched a movie called â€Å"A League of Their Own†, and got to be ethnography anthropologist. As a shortRead MoreThe American Girls Softball League2018 Words   |  9 Pagesthe year 1943, Philip K. Wrigley founded the All-American Girls Softball League. He formed the league to entertain baseball fans while many of the men were away fighting WWII. What began as a softball league transformed to baseball league that eventually became known as the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League (AAGPBL). The league was designed with fifteen teams made up of twenty to twenty-five women spread out across America. The league existed for twelve years, from 1943 to 1954. ThisRead MoreAmerica s Most Important Pastime2091 Words   |  9 Pagesgame of baseball afloat. The female athletes who played baseball during World War II were brought in as a last resort to save baseball, forced to fulfill stereotypes, and taught how to act, but were still persevered through all of those strikes against them, and were able to show that women were able to play baseball just like men. Practically every little boy or girl who grew up in the United States has experienced the phrase, â€Å"America’s favorite pastime,† in one way or another. Through all of theRead MoreThe Sport Of Baseball : America s Favorite Pastime1093 Words   |  5 PagesThe sport of baseball, otherwise known as â€Å"America’s favorite pastime†, has reportedly been around since the 17th century. It has had its ups and downs like every other sport, but the crazy history of how it came about is quite extensive. Having to find new players that no one would think of to play and eventually having the first ever World Series; the sport has changed throughout time. The beginning of baseball can be accredited to Thomas Wilson who was a conformist leader in England. WilsonRead MoreModern Day Baseball ( Lanham ) Essay1326 Words   |  6 Pagesa little over four decades earlier, Alexander Cartwright, the â€Å"father of baseball† formalized the rules, or codes, of â€Å"townball†. What is â€Å"townball†? Who exactly is Alexander Cartwright? Moreover, what on earth does this have to do with fast-pitch softball? These are all valid questions you may or, may not have right now. Townball or base are both older colloquial terms used to describe, what would become American baseball. Many news sources such as the Westchester Journal and multiple St. LouisRead MoreThe Little League Of The Baseball Cap1599 Words   |  7 PagesFrom a young age, girls and boys are separated in all walks of life; none is truer than in sports, especially baseball. In 1939 Little League Baseball was founded for anyone between the ages of 5 and 18; leading with their motto Courage, Character, and Loyalty. This idea of courage was especially true in the year 1950, when Kathryn Johnston tucker her hair under her baseball cap, took on the nickname â€Å"Tubby† and posed as a boy for her local teams tryouts. It was not until after she made the teamRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Toni Stone Sammi 810 Words   |  4 PagesToni Stone Sammi Anyone who think that boys are the only ones to play baseball, they are exceedingly wrong because a little girl was born to play ball, named Toni Stone. Marcenia Stone, was born on July 17, 1921, in Saint Paul, Minnesota. She is famous for being the first African American woman to play professional baseball on all men s teams. She was a tomboy when she was growing up so she was given the nickname ‘Toni’ because it sounded like tomboy. She went

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Essay about Tension and Suspense in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

How effective is the setting in creating tension and suspense in Stevenson’s works? Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde is a novella about a scientist who experiments with the morals of good and evil. He then decides to try to separate these elements and difficulties arise with this. This novella concerns how one individual has conflicting emotions that are both good and evil. Dr Jekyll tries to make one-person ‘wholly’ good and another ‘wholly’ evil, but his experiments become quite dangerous. ‘The Body Snatcher’ is about two old friends, Fettes and Doctor Macfarlane, who studied under someone who was a famous, but unorthodox, anatomist. They would collect bodies for this person but they soon regret collecting one body. The confession of†¦show more content†¦Utterson goes to visit Dr.Jekyll, he meets Hyde, though he never sees his face as he talks with him. It is always dark so that the reader cannot get a description of his face, and the scenes are always in the middle of the night. Even where Dr Jekyll’s house is situated creates tension. The book mentions that it is in Soho; which at the time was the ‘seedier’ side of London. People can relate to this and the setting makes the novella sound realistic and that is why Stevenson creates tension and suspense, whereas if the setting was somewhere such as Mars it would not be true as people may have visited Soho and they may know the town quite well. If Stevenson wrote a book that was set on Mars, the reader would feel more safe when reading it because they know this is not really going to happen, and so Stevenson would not fulfil his task of creating tension in the reader. At one point in the story, Mr. Utterson is looking for Mr Hyde and the book mentions that he looks for him â€Å"at night under the face of the fogged city moon.† This creates tension because it suggests that people would not be out late at night and the â€Å"fogged city† is giving the reader a sense of insecurity as the word s seem dark and damp, and people that go out at that time of night were probably up to no good. Other ordinary, good people were too scared to go out so the reader expects MrShow MoreRelated How Stevenson Builds Suspense and Tension in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde1137 Words   |  5 PagesStevenson Builds Suspense and Tension in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde After thoroughly examining the question at hand. I have understood that I should comment on at least three episodes of the novel and clearly stress out how the writer built up the suspense and tension of the story. However I am going to look at techniques such as using shot quotations and not being to repetitive. The episodes l am going to be explaining are the incident of the letter, the remarkable incident of Dr Lanyon and theRead MoreSuspense in Jekyll and Hyde Essay1572 Words   |  7 PagesHow suspense is built up in ‘Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’ by Robert Louis Stevenson Robert Louis Stevenson was born on the 13th November 1850. He wrote Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde in 1886, with that 40,000 copies of the book were sold in the first six months. This was designed to mirror the Victorian secret and based on good and evil. Stevenson later died in 1894 in Samoa. Stevenson used the contemporary setting of Victorian London to write his gothic horror novel. The streets with the gas lamps were the perfectRead MoreExplore the Ways in Which Stevenson Creates an Effective Horror Story in â€Å"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.†2066 Words   |  9 Pagescreates an effective horror story in â€Å"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.† Robert Stevenson wrote â€Å"Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde† in 1885. In â€Å"Dr. Jekyll and My Hyde,† Stevenson creates the atmosphere of a horror story. He does this through many different techniques. He makes subtle suggestions that the central characters lead a double life, creating suspense, dramatic events and the taking of innocent victims. In chapter one, Stevenson creates an enormous amount of suspense and intrigue in the description of Jekyll’sRead MoreA Sense of Atmosphere in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.Hyde828 Words   |  4 PagesA Sense of Atmosphere in The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.Hyde Introduction: The tension and suspense in the novel begins with the title, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. It makes you want to know what the strange case was and how it affected the characters. One day, Utterson was out walking with the town distant kinsman Mr. Enfield when they passed a house Mr.Enfield tells Mr Utterson a strange case about the house. Description of the house makesRead MoreHow does R. L. Stevenson create suspense in The Last Night chapter of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde?2039 Words   |  9 PagesRobert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a gothic novel in many of its aspects, but one of the most important reasons is that there is constant building of suspense. There are many ways that this is done: through his characters, through his vocabulary, the setting and even through the origins of the character of Hyde. Stevenson created the character of Utterson as a neutral base for the whole story; much like the table on which the dinner is served. But in the chapter of The Last NightRead More The Gothic Novel Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Essay examples1403 Words   |  6 PagesTo what extent can The strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde be viewed as a gothic novel? Jekyll and Hyde is a gothic novel. It was written by Robert Louis Stevenson, he got the idea for the story after a dream he had. The word ‘Goth’ is originally from a German tribe and has come to mean ‘barbarian’ and later know as ‘Gothic’. In Gothic Literature certain features are expected. These are supernatural events, have villains and hero characters, strange weather, horror, mystery and deathsRead MoreRobert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Essay3798 Words   |  16 PagesHow does Robert Louis Stevenson create a notion of good and evil in the strange case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was published in 1886 and was written after a dream Robert Louis Stevenson had. The story is mainly a horror but has an element of mystery throughout it. It is a powerful story with a hidden philosophical outlook on life and society. The story has one main theme running through it and other smaller ones that can only be found by readingRead MoreStevensons Use of Literary Techniques in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde2427 Words   |  10 PagesStevensons Use of Literary Techniques in The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Robert Louis Stevensons Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde tells of how a scientist abuses his knowledge so that he can become another being but the double he becomes is one that cannot be directly blamed for his crimes and actions. Throughout the story Stevenson uses many different literary techniques to convey how the characters feel. These can be categorized into many different themes: theRead MoreStevensons Use of Literary Techniques to Portray Evil in Jekyll and Hyde3969 Words   |  16 PagesThis essay will focus on how Robert Louis Stevenson presents the nature of evil through his novel ‘The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde’. Using ideas such as duality, the technique used to highlight the two different sides of a character or scene, allegories, an extended metaphor which has an underlying moral significance, and hypocrisy; in this book the Victorians being against all things evil but regularly taking part in frown able deeds that would not be approved of in a ‘respectable’ societyRead MoreEdgar Allen Poe s Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde, And The Tell Tale Heart1579 Words   |  7 Pageshorror genre is unparalleled by any other single genre. People who take part in this genre enjoy the heart-pounding thrill of being scared or the long drawn out tension that causes them to sit on the edge of their seat. Historically many of the early examples of the horror or gothic genre like Dracula by Bram Stoker, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson, and The Tell Tale Heart by Edgar Allen Poe all share similar characteristics. These writings stand out and made people like them, they

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Market Economy Vs. Command Economy Essay Example For Students

Market Economy Vs. Command Economy Essay Intorduction:Within the overall umbrella of the word economy, one speaks today of the market economy, the formal economy, the informal economy, the underground economy, the productive economy and perhaps even the reproductive economy, the post-industrial or post-modern economy and the global economy. Thus while the concept of an economy is not fixed but arbitrary, and may have strayed rather far from the management of household resources, it is nonetheless spoken of in official circles as if there were genuine agreement (sometimes almost as if it were tangible, as we must get the economy back on track). The official economic paradigm operative in Canada is that of the market economy or the formal economy. This is what is being measured, analysed and reported on. An economy is said to work within a framework reflecting the values of the society in which it is embedded. Traditionally, three models of an economy have been used: the traditional or feudal, the command economy (where the state determines resource decisions) and the market economy which is the model in use in USA and in most industrialized Western countries. Indeed, even within the market economy, there are different models; for example, the Scandinavian model of social democracy, the Asian corporatist mode, and the ca pitalist model of North America. Each model has been seen and judged both from inside and outside its parameters. Individual freedom is one of the hallmarks of the market economy each person is free to choose how they wish to put their income to use. Adam Smith, hailed as the founder of classical economics, suggested that the sum of individuals self-interest would produce results that corresponded to the overall good of society. The Economic systems:There are three types of economies: traditional (also known as subsistence), command (also known as planned) and market (commercial). Traditional EconomyIn a traditional economy, goods and services are produced by a family for their personal consumption. There is little surplus and little exchange of goods. There is only a limited need for markets (places to buy and sell goods and services). This is the type of economy found in less developed nations of the world, usually in rural areas. Most less developed nations today are a mix of tr aditional and either market or command economies. Command EconomyThere are three types of economies: traditional (also known as subsistence), command (also known as planned) and market (commercial). In a command economy, decisions about what and how much to produce, where to locate economic activities, and what prices to charge for goods and services are made by a single, central government agency or authority. These economic decisions are often made to further social goals. Communism is one example of a command economy; socialism is another. In a command economy, the government, not market forces, controls the price of goods including agricultural products. Production costs are not reflected in prices. For example, it may cost $1.00 to produce a loaf of bread, but the price may be set at $.25 to ensure consumers are able to afford adequate supplies. Market EconomyThere are three types of economies: traditional (also known as subsistence), command (also known as planned) and market (commercial). In a market economy (elements of which may be considered a free enterprise economic system), decisions about what and how much to produce, where to locate economic activities, and what prices to charge for goods and services are determined by laws of supply and demand and the market. Profit drives decisions in a market economy. USSR, The command economy:From 1928 onwards the Soviet economy course was charted at the centre and directives issued outwards from the centre passing downwards and outwards through a massive hierarchical bureaucracy. Stalins emphasis on centralization, state ownership of the means of production, and centrally planned production and distribution set the tone for the development of the Soviet economy for the next sixty years. State socialism is, by definition, a centrally planned, command economy. When one refers to the Soviet version of state socialism one is referring to the highly centralized, command economy that was established under Stalin. On certain levels this economic program met with considerable success. In the 1940s the Soviet state withstood the German onslaught and emerged from the Second World War as a global power. Also, in the ensuing years the Soviet Union was able to maintain a military industrial complex that allowed it to contend with the United States on a global basis. The means of production were entirely owned by the state and all economic activity was centrally planned through the State Planning Commission (GOSPLAN). On the on hand, this permitted the coordination of economic activity and when, necessary, facilitated rapid advancement of particular policies or specific sectors of the economy. During the first Five Year plan collectivisation of agriculture proceeded at a phenomenal rate (aided by coercion) and in 1929 a 49 per cent increase in state procurement of grain over the previous year was recorded. ( Nove, 1992, P161). Canterbury Tales: Chaucers View Of The Church EssayIn a similar fashion, free market societies are generally liberal democracies. The analogy is presented that the free market in economics is equivalent to the free market of ideas and policies that is liberal democracy. Underlying this approach to economic (and political) organization is the assertion that all individuals possess certain equal rights to vote, to work, to move and that this creates a level playing field in the free market and electoral politics. A centralized economy attempts to design and enforce an equitable system of distribution while capitalism asserts that equitable distribution will ensue if all individuals compete on a level playing field. Unfortunately, as was the case with a centralized economy, reliance on the free market results in both successes and failures. The successes that capitalism rightly lays claim to relate to innovation. Competition does encourage innovation, and capitalism has produced well over a century of dizzying technical progress. At the same time productivity has also increased at a phenomenal rate. These technological developments can, in large part, be linked to the competitive environment of the free market. However, the failures of capitalism are evident in North American society also. In a city as affluent as Toronto, a city with a global reputation for quality of life, homelessness is a constant and squeegee kids are just a new element in the milieu. In the United States the inner cities have become hyper-segregated urban battlegrounds while gated communities proliferate. This handful of examples suffices to illustrate hat North American capitalism has done a less than perfect job of distribution. Under capitalism, as Frank Cunningham points out, freedom does not include freedom from poverty and rights do not include such simple material factors as shelter and employment. (Cunningham, 1977, P97)More importantly, these anecdotal illustrations point to structural imbalances in capitalism; imbalances that make free market and the level playing field myths. People are born with neither equal opportunities nor equal abilities: Therefore, they enter the playing field at different levels. Th e son of a Multi-Million Corporation vice-president, attending Harvard and living in Beverly Hills has different opportunities than the daughter of a landed immigrant from Poland who drives a taxi in LA. It is ludicrous to suggest that the two have equal opportunities or compete on a level playing field. In fact, these two individuals would largely live in separate worlds because of their differing economic circumstances. For the former the government would be represented by Revenue, for the latter it would be Community and Social Services. While both might see the Metro police as a symbol of government it would not be unreasonable to presume that they had had different experiences with them. Most importantly, their lifestyles from diet to leisure would be completely different largely as a result of their economic status. The free market and the level playing field enhance the status quo by insuring that the wealthy can use their wealthy to preserve their position and aid their children s careers. At the same time they condemn the poor to their place by insisting they enter the free market bereft of resources economic, educational and political. Politics in capitalist affairs merit a brief aside. In politics, as in economics, the possession of wealth and capital translates into influence. A newspaper publisher has a larger forum than a plumber and a lobbyist who donated thousands of dollars has more influence than an injured worker appealing a WCB decision. In a democracy, one-man one-vote does not translate into a level playing field because economic factors influence one s political influence if not one s voting rights. Capitalist societies rely on the marketplace to regulate the distribution of goods. While this encourages competition and innovation among manufactures it also encourages competition among consumers and labors and results in massive imbalances in distribution. In cities throughout North America the homeless sleep within meters of mansions and exclusive condominiums. The marketplace possesses no inherent morality. In fact, in its worship of competition it is amoral. On the other hand, the Soviet experience clearly demonstrated that state socialism and a centralized economy can be mishandled. Perhaps it is human nature, not political organization that lies at the root of inequality in both North America and Eastern Europe. BibliographyBibliography? Aghion, Philippe and Olivier Blanchard and Robin Burgess, The Behavior of State Firms in Eastern Europe, Pre-Privatization ?European Economic Review 38: 1994, pp1327-1349. ? Belozertsev, Alexander and Jerry W Markham, Commodity Exchanges and the Privatization of the Agricultural Sector in the Commonwealth of Independent States Needed Steps in Creating a Market Economy ?Law and Contemporary Problems 55: (4), Aut 1992, pp119-155? Cunningham, Frank Understanding Marxism Progress Books Toronto: 1977. ? Dyker, David Restructuring the Soviet Economy Routledge New York: 1992? Nove, Alec An Economic History of the USSR, 1917-1991 3rd Ed Penguin Books, London: 1992? Lane, David Soviet Society under Perestroike Routledge London: 1992? Yarolavsky, E Landmarks in the Life of Stalin Lawrence Wishart Ltd London: 1942Economics Essays

Monday, December 2, 2019

Presidential Candidates Media Efforts Essays - John McCain

Presidential Candidate's Media Efforts Senator John McCain, a Republican from Arizona, has had a long and distinguished career in both the military and in politics. A United States Naval Pilot and Captain who received the Silver Star, Bronze Star, Legion of Merit, and Purple Heart, McCain then moved onto the House of Representatives and Senate (Biographical Data for John S. McCain). In April of 1999, McCain announced his candidacy for President, stating his mission to restore integrity into the office, reform government, and renew the American dream(The John McCain Story). Senator McCains platform is classic GOP conservatisma strong defense, less government regulation, tax reductions, local oversight of education(The Issue: Senator John McCain ). McCain has endeavored to fulfill his dream by creating a web site devoted to his campaign, giving numerous speeches, running many television ads and appearing on various television programs. An integral part of his campaign has been to reach the less reliable, harder to attract y outh vote. Americas youth today is disenchanted with the political system. Two-thirds of young Americans dont vote, primarily because they dont feel candidates are addressing issues important to them (Cox, Finklestein). According to a Youth Survey conducted by Project Vote Smart, voters aged 18-24 think school shootings and kids with guns, crime and violence, poverty and unemployment, corrupt government and illicit drug sales are the five most important problems facing America today (General Population). Meanwhile, candidates spend the majority of time discussing issues such as Social Security, taxes and abortion, which are not of as much concern to young voters. John McCain has actively sought out 18-24 year olds, the group collectively known as Generation Y. The Arizona Senator reached out to young voters with a message of personal honesty and government reform, drawing large crowds on college campuses in New Hampshire and South Carolina (Sullivan, McCain Gets). McCain has addressed some of the issues that concern Americas youth today. The Senator does not support gun bans but does promote effective measures that keep firearms out of the hands of criminals, children, and the mentally incompetent(Cox, Finklestein). Corruption in government, particularly the role that money plays in politics, is a main issue of McCains campaign and is being addressed through his strategy to ameliorate campaign finance. McCain has led the fight in Congress to reform campaign finance, especially soft money contributions which are large donations to national parties from individuals, corporations and labor unions that are not susceptible to regulation. McCain, a long with Democratic candidate Bill Bradley, is credited as being the first to discuss reforming the campaign finance system (Cox, Finklestein). In the Youth Survey conducted by Project Vote Smart, respondents aged 18-24 chose the World Wide Web as their most useful information source (General Population). McCain is utilizing the power of the Internet to build mailing lists, solicit contributions and to attract young voters, many of whom are more acquainted with computer networks than political networks (Sullivan, Virtual). The Internet has proved to be an important organizing tool in McCains campaign. Young people interested in becoming involved in his campaign will find a web site that devotes an entire page to each youth organization in each state. Pages consist of upcoming events, biographical information, photographs, links and contact information, putting various aspects of McCains campaign at the very technologically advanced fingertips of Americas youth (Students 4 Dole). Each page varies; some simply list contact information, while others have inspirational letters from McCain supporters and extravagant graphics like waving state flags. Virtual volunteers assist electronically, emailing everything from polling station maps to voting reminders to downloadable pictures of McCain This is how were making the Internet local to everybody, said Max Fose, McCains Internet manager (Sullivan, Virtual). McCain is attracting Generation Y through various appearances at college campuses, using his standard line of inspiring a generation of young Americans to commit to causes greater than themselves(Gannon). McCains Campus Connection, a group of one hundred and sixty college campuses nationwide, recently joined Students 4 Dole, an organization of over two hundred schools and colleges nationwide, to form one of the largest collections of student leaders in America. McCains Campus Connection is now a central part of his Internet site, with its own e-mail communications network.