Monday, September 30, 2019

Arecanut and Cocoa Production and Marketing Aspects Essay

Arecanut is an important commercial crop in India which plays a prominent role in the religious, social and cultural functions and economic life of people in India. The present production of arecanut in the world is about 0.854 million tons from an area of 0.702 million hectares. India ranks first in both area and production of arecanut Arecanut industry forms the economic backbone of nearly six million people in India and for many of them it is the sole means of livelihood. Both area and production of arecanut in India have increased tremendously during the last three decades. The area under arecanut in India has increased from 0.167 million hectares during 1971 to 0.4 million hectares by the year 2010-11 with an overall growth rate of 2.2%. During the same period the production has increased more than 3 times from 0.141 million tons to 0.478 million tones with a growth rate of 3.2%. As of now, cocoa is one of the important commercial plantation crops in India and it is mainly cultivated in four major southern States viz., Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. India produces 12954 tonnes of cocoa from an area of 46318 ha (DCCD, 2010). The cocoa industry in the country had expanded to a considerable extent in recent years. At present, more than 15 industrial entrepreneurs and firms existing in the field demand nearly 30,000 tonnes of cocoa beans, of which the present domestic availability is only about 40 percent. Considering the market growth in the chocolate segment in India, which is about 20 percent per annum, cocoa, has a great potential to develop in future years. Recent area expansion in Andhra Pradesh (16969 ha) can be taken as a positive response to the demand-supply fissure. We can further, strengthen the Transfer of Technology (ToT) activities to encourage the cocoa cultivation as an intercrop in arecanut and coconut to meet the challenges r egarding supply of cocoa in the future. Economic impact analysis of arecanut based cropping system An impact analysis of arecanut based cropping systems in South Karnataka has been carried out. It was observed that, farmers are predominantly following three cropping systems which were, 1) arecanut + banana 2) arecanut + cocoa and 3) arecanut + banana + pepper. To estimate the economic impact of different cropping systems, we have calculated the average cost per hectare, average yield and the net returns of each system. The quantification of economic impact of each system has been worked out by combining the difference in net returns of each system from the arecanut monocrop, and percentage of adoption of each cropping system. The total economic impact due to adoption of cropping systems in the region was found to be Rs 680 million. Economic impact analysis of improved arecanut varieties The analysis was based on a field survey of 120 arecanut farmers in South Karnataka. To estimate the economic impact of improved varieties we have calculated the weighed average cost per hectare, weighed yield and net returns of the released varieties. The weights are assigned according to the estimated percentage area of each variety in South Karnataka. The total area of arecanut in the district was multiplied with the percentage adoption of improved varieties in the region to arrive at the total area under improved varieties. The difference in net returns will give the additional benefit we would have obtained, had the area been under released varieties. It was observed that 13.6% of total area in southern Karnataka is under released arecanut varieties. The economic impact of released arecanut varieties in monitory terms was found to be rupees 141 million per year. The presence of improved varieties was more prominent in the young plantations. The holding wise observations revealed that the presence of released varieties was more in small holding groups. Cost of production of arecanut and cocoa According to the study conducted by the Institute, the cost of production of one kilogram of arecanut in a well-maintained garden was found to be Rs 104.20 Here we have considered the economic life span of the palm as 35 years and average annual production as 2700 kg/ha The average maintenance cost (from 8th year to 35th year) was calculated at Rs. 168765/ha. The cost of production of cocoa grown in arecanut garden was found to be Rs74.42/kg of dry beans and average annual maintenance cost recorded at Rs 55268/ha. Marketing The chali and the red are the two main varieties of arecanut consumed by the people mostly as a habit. Chali or the white supari is used mainly in the pan or beedas and the red variety is used both in the preparation of pan and value added products like pan masala, ghutka, sweet supari etc. From production to consumption level both private traders and the co-operatives play an important role in India. Here, the share of the cooperative is around 15 per cent and remaining is under the control of the private traders. Among the cooperatives The CAMPCO, a nodal agency has its own purchasing and sales centres throughout the country Disposal pattern: A study in Dakshina Karnataka showed that 80 percent of the farmers, who dispose the produce immediately after harvest, were small cultivators. Remaining 20 per cent who disposed the produce when the prices in the market are favorable, were large farmers. It was observed that indebtedness and lack of proper infrastructure facilities for storage compel the small farmer to dispose the produce at the earliest. The majority of the farmers (63%) sold chali supari to traders, who reportedly paid two rupees extra of the market rate per kg of chali sold. Stagnating market prices and increasing cost of production, especially the skilled labour charges in the recent times have generated livelihood concerns of arecanut farmers in India. Surging imports, which is around 12 percent of the domestic production, certainly has a significant role in price stickiness. Market studies reveal that around 75 percent of the arecanut trade is in the hands of private trades, which has provided ample scope for hoarding and resulted in market imperfections and low price realization. In the case of cocoa the current supply is only around fifty percent of the actual domestic demand and hence, there exist a huge scope for area expansion with the supply of elite seedlings/grafts. Effective dissemination of technologies through trainings, on-farm trials, demonstrations and seminars are being carried out by the Institute. Nevertheless, the price stagnation of the crop for a long period has caused disinterest among arecanut farmers. Therefore, in the case of arecanut a vicious cycle was formed in the pattern of ‘depressed prices + shortage of labour–crop negligence–diseases /pest attack–low yield/production’ and this in turn especially has adversely affected the small and marginal arecanut farmers who are solely dependent on the crop.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Why Could Be Considered a Turning Point in Lord of the Flies

Filippo Denti! 07/04/2009 Explain why Chapter 4 could be considered a turning point in Lord of the Flies Chapter 4 can be considered a turning point in the book since it shows many different aspects of the book which weren't covered yet. It starts showing the savageness of the children and the loss of civilisation and order. it also shows that with all this anarchy the children still have order in their souls whom they can not expel. the chapter also tells us how people ignore commands and follow a person just because they are afraid of him. Chapter one ? ts perfectly well in the beginning of the book.The chapter gives us a clear vision of what has happened before the beginning of the book; the plane crash, the atomic bomb; the island and the war. It shows it when Ralph, then known as the boy with fair hair says that; â€Å"This is an island. At least I think it’s an island. There is a reef out in the sea. Perhaps there aren’t any grownups anywhere. † we ? nd out it’s a plane crash when Piggy says â€Å"There was that pilot. But he wasn’t in the passenger tube, he was in the cabin in front†. As the book goes on Ralph and Piggy ? nd all of the other boys on the island and the choir, with its boss Jack.Thanks to Ralph the children are united under a shell, the Conch, this precious shell is the symbol of legacy, order and respect. The children join together thanks to the Conch, since Ralph blew in it and it made a very high sound which was heard by everybody. When all of the children were gathered a leader was elected and that http://listverse. com/wp-content/ leader was Ralph, partly because he was the biggest and partly uploads/ 2007/08/6a00d41432c15a685e because he was handsome. The most important event in these 00d41436fd406a47-500pi. jpg chapters, in my opinion, is the ? re. The ? e was created so that the ships and airplanes that passed could see the smoke and notice them. The idea of the ? re is great but you should never joke with ? re and the result of their ? re was that part of the island was burned and a poor child got killed. Out of this mess Piggy is showing up as being the most intelligent and intuitive of the group. Chapter four starts off with a description of Jack painting his face. This is very important because it shows the changement of Jack into a beast. He is painting his face to be scarier and, in his thinking to appear as a warrior. This comes from ! 1 Filippo Denti! 07/04/2009 ncient African tribes who used to paint their faces to scare the prey. This is a very important symbolical event, it starts showing the transformation of the boys, from civilised to savages. The intent of jack is to scare, scare like a savage the wild beasts, the new people of their new world, beasts who have no laws and do what they want when they want it. This is shown when Jack is convincing Bill to leave the ? re: â€Å"The rest are making a line. Come on! † â€Å"But- -we-† â€Å"Co me on! I’ll creep up and stab-†. This is why the ? re went out while they were hunting. He is forcing people whom are following a set of rules to go savage and kill boars.This is the moving into the wild. Bill is afraid of what the others would think if he didn’t join, they would have thought that he was a person who was afraid of breaking the rules. This is bringing people into the wild. Jack paints his face showing that he is a warrior. A warrior is a person who isn’t afraid of dying and killing. A savage person, who utilises weapons to kill for food. This is the job of the choir and of Jack. They tried to hunt before but with no success since Jack didn’t manage to kill the pig but he promised himself that the next time he will kill it. â€Å"you didn’t kill. â€Å"But I shall! Next time! I’ve got to get a barb on this spear! We wounded a pig and the spear fell out. If we could only make barbs-† Jack is accusing the spear for him not killing a pig but even if it had a barb he didn’t have the guts of killing it. No we see him all http://img101. imageshack. us/img101/8682/ painted in the face willing to kill and involving many lotf2xd6. jpg different people in the hunt, not only the warriors but also the ones of the ? re. This time Jack is willing to kill, â€Å"I’ll creep up and stab† Roger and Maurice, in this chapter, have changed immensely, they, at ? st, destroyed the sand castles in the Littluns play area. Roger was ? rst and came marching in kicking the castles down while going to swim after ? nishing their ? re duty. Roger led the way destroying castles, burying ? owers and Maurice joined after; â€Å"Roger and Maurice came out of the forest. They were relieved from the ? re and had come down for a swim. Roger led the way straight through the castles, kicking them over, burying the ? owers, scattering the chosen stones. Maurice followed, laughing, and then added to the destru ction. †. These two boys are taking advantage that they are bigger and start to bully the Littluns.Roger, after destroying the castles, throws stones to Henry. He throws them without hitting him, as though there was a shield around him. This is because he is turning savage but at an extent, there is still a little piece of civilisation and humanity in their souls. This piece of humanity can not be expelled since it is engraved in their souls. Maurice went away because he had problems before and so he left Ralph; â€Å"†¦ Maurice hurried away. In his other life Maurice had received chastisement for ? lling a younger eye with sand. †. This shows that they haven’t quit with the old habits. ! 2 Filippo Denti! 7/04/2009 When Jack kills the pig the ? re goes out. The ? re is the symbol of hope and rescue, a rescue who could have been near with the ship’s sight. On the other hand the pig represents savageness and the wild. The fact that when the pig dyes the ? re goes out is that savageness covers hope. The children have become savages and went to kill the pig ignoring their only hope signal, the ? re. It’s like a peace ? ame which goes out when a war starts, these two things are opposite and can not cope with each other. The same is in the book, Mr. Golding wants to show that when savageness over? ws through people there is no more order, the order that ruled with Ralph. Ralph ordered that the ? re should never run out, but when Jack decided to go hunting every one went, becoming savages, pigs enemies. The only to be still obedient are Piggy, Simon, Maurice and Ralph, all the rest went hunting, ignoring the orders given. We can se the difference when the hunters come back chanting savage songs: â€Å"Kill the pig. http://www. globalnerdy. com/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/2008/10/lord_of_the_? ies. jpg Cut her throat. Spill her blood† and when Jack says laughing: â€Å"There was lashings of blood, you should have seen it! . All of the hunters are laughing and singing while the others are still. Ralph continues to say: â€Å"You let the ? re out. †. Only at the end the hunters realise that they could have been rescued and jack apologises: â€Å"I’m sorry about the ? re, I mean. There. I – I apologise. †. Jack has restarted treating Piggy badly, but this time it’s not only the verbal but this time also violence. He, at ? rst, hits Piggy in the stomach and then when he is lying on the ? oor he slaps him making his glasses ? y and break. â€Å"He took a step, and able at last to hit someone, stuck ifs ? t into Piggy’s stomach Piggy sat down with a grunt. Jack stood over him. His voice was vicious with humiliation. †. This shows that he was showing off what he could do, in fact Ralph repeatedly tells him: â€Å"That was a dirty trick. †. Simon is the only one who helps Piggy, he gets his glasses before anyone does something to them. He seems to have changed side, no more Jack Meridew but Ralph and Piggy. Although he seems so mite he continuously disappears into the forest to secret places: â€Å"I painted my face- I stole up. Now you eat- all of you- and I-†. This creates a long silence while he goes in the forest.At the end we see the children eating the meat half raw, this means that they now, not only act but eat as savages, with the food half cooked. This is typical of animals to eat raw ? esh, not of civilised children. The beginning shows the rhythms of the island, the dawn, the dusk, the cool moments and the way the children have adapted themselves. At the end it shows that the children have lost their civilisation. At the beginning we focus only on Jack and the scene is calm, at the end it’s a chaos between the pig and the ? re. Golding shows us the how sudden the changes are. As I red through the chapter I could ! 3 Filippo Denti!

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness Essay - 1

Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness - Essay Example The main purpose of the research is to present that Life, Liberty and pursuit of happiness is a phrase which outline and indicate the unalienable rights given to all human beings by the God and the institution of government is formed to protect those rights. Jefferson’s original draft suggests that all men are created equal and from this creation, each of them derive and inherent the right to preservation of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. The overall emphasis therefore is upon creation of men as equal and from within this equality, all men have the undeniable rights to preserve the life, have liberty and pursue the happiness. While this phrase is one of the well-known phrases in the declaration however, it is argued that Jefferson was largely influenced by Locke when he decided to include this phrase in declaration. Though, the original draft of Jefferson was refined subsequently however, debate remains regarding what were the actual influences on Jefferson to include this in the original draft. One argument is based upon the assumption that Jefferson was impressed by what Locke termed as the protection of property. Locke suggested that the very purpose of political society is to actually protect the property of individuals. Property, according to Locke, comprises of life, liberty or freedom and estate. Jefferson however, replaced the word estate with the word pursuit of happiness. The right to preserve the life has liberty and pursuit of happiness therefore was the basic promise State actually made to its citizens as one of its basic duties towards citizens.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Materials homework assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Materials homework - Assignment Example Moreover, HMAC technology permits asphalt concrete to the range of 50 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit cooler compared to the PCC resulting to the reduction in terms of the temperature, which substantially decreases energy utilization at the mixing plant and consequently lessen greenhouse gas emissions during production. HMAC production concrete drastically decrease the quantity volatile organic compound emissions thus eradicating the smoke and odor related to the PCC, bricks, gravel and stabilized earth. HMAC production lowers production temperature that normally results to oxidation of the asphalt mix during the traditional hot-mix asphalt production process. This leaves efficient asphalt within the mix by aiding in the reduction of the aging impact of the asphalt. Aging impact results to brittleness and cracking. Moreover, HMAC possesses the potential for increased compaction over the PCC, bricks, gravel and stabilized earth, which aids in reducing potential damage to the streets due to the recurrent loading over period. Engineering wood is the best for building two stories house within the Oregon coast having sustainability goal. Oregon coast has higher humidity levels and the engineering wood is more suitable since it is more resistant to relatively higher moisture and steady. Engineering wood is also not susceptible to swelling due to alteration in temperature thus adding attractions within the basements or within the regions possessing relatively higher humidity levels. The wood also works efficiently under the floor heating systems due to its stability. Engineering wood normally has a thickness of 15mm hence offers greater stability and long-term usage. Natural finish of the building will consists of very board of multiple layers of the timber that bonded together. The underlying outermost of 4mm of engineering hardwood will act as an option to the solid

Thursday, September 26, 2019

War between China and Japan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

War between China and Japan - Essay Example The main countries, China and Japan, continue to stoke the embers of the war till today with China seething at the trauma and humiliation caused to her. Their relationship has not thawed even after an official apology offered by Junichiro Koizumi, former prime minister of Japan. (Jin Ni). The brutality of Japan, the power struggle in China during this period, and the resilience or annihilation with which the native Chinese faced it are all succinctly summarized in films like Devils on the Doorstep and The Last Emperor. During the time the war was being waged, China was a divided nation with warlords in different regions more keen on consolidating their own position and interests. Some of them even openly sided with the invading Japanese troops for political gains and military supremacy in the region. The National Revolutionary Army, successor to the erstwhile Kuomintang Army, founded by General Chiang Kai-shek succeeded in unifying the belligerent factions in 1928. However, it was weak motley whose only purpose was to repel the atrocious Japanese invaders. They had no real desire to defend the nation and only wanted to drive out the Japanese so that they could carry on with their bellicosity with their neighboring warlords afterwards. Moreover, the National Army had to contend with ominous threats from the communists. In fact, Chiang Kai-shek was aware the threat posed by the communists was even more dangerous than the conflict with Japan. The Red Army of the communists in China fought Japan as part of the National Revolutionary Army. However, the wily Mao Zedong was gingerly sowing seeds of power entrapment through coercive and overtly strong arm tactics. He got the large segment of the peasant population to his side by reducing taxes and other reforms. The preparations were afoot with both sides waiting for the final showdown after World War II to see who would emerge as winners. (MacGowan, J). 3. Outside powers China's meager weaponry consisted of the artillery and ammunition provided by Germany. Others like Russia, Britain and the USA joined in at the closing stages. They did not wish to get involved in a fight taking place thousands of miles away from their own shores at the cost of their own defense. Russia and Britain initially refused to get involved due to their own problems with the Axis powers. The USA was not keen on fighting a war in somebody else's land. 4. Films on the war Produced by Jiang Wen, Devils on the Doorstep highlights the horrors of the war with a brilliant mix of facts and humor. Set in the climes of a farming village, the film simmers and smolders with interactions between humble local farmers and the malevolent Japanese occupiers. The events, dialogues and interpretations between the simple residents and the no-nonsense predators are ensconced in the humor of an hapless interpreter caught between a suicidal Japanese captive and their ignoble bloodthirsty captors.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Argument Diet coke (it's bad in health, waste money, contributes to Essay - 1

Argument Diet coke (it's bad in health, waste money, contributes to greenhouse gases because the product is shipped in lots of p - Essay Example Similarly, there are other adverse effects of Diet Coke on health. The beverage also contributes to greenhouse gases, and environmental issues due to its non-recycleable packaging. The Coca-Cola company with the Carbon Trust has given details on â€Å"the carbon footprints of some of the company’s most popular drinks, including Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, and Coke Zero† (Mohan, 2009). This is the first time the Carbon Trust has certified the carbon footprint of any brand of carbonated drinks. Thesis Statement: This argument paper supports the view that Diet Coke is detrimental to weight loss, to maintaining good health and to the environment. The Adverse Health Outcomes of Consuming Diet Coke According to Pat Thomas, although Diet Coke is strongly associated with sports and health, it is composed of a â€Å"worrying mixture of neurotoxic and potentially carcinogenic high intensity sweeteners, tooth and bone destroying acids and DNA damaging colourings† (Thomas 31). Fur ther, the beverage also contains psychoaddictive caffeine and other ‘flavorings’. ... Soda manufacturers have continued to mix benzoates and acids due to a lack of pressure from regulatory authorities to change their formula to prevent the formation of benzene. â€Å"Ironically, the high fructose syrups used in regular drinks seem to slow this reaction down, and the formation of benzene appears to be most problematic in diet drinks† (Thomas 31). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved of the sweetener acesulfame potassium, or Sunett, for use in various instant beverages and other food products. The sweetener is manufactured by Hoechst Celanese Corporation. The company’s tests have not proved that the product is safe; on the other hand, research studies by some of the scientists at the company’s laboratory have indicated that the product may even cause cancer in laboratory animals. The FDA is â€Å"now reviewing Sunett for soft drinks, the biggest and most competitive market for artificial sweeteners† (BBN 7C). The annual sales o f low calorie soft drinks such as Diet Coke at retail outlets in the United States reached $3.8 billion, according to Information Resources Inc. The Centre for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) has stated that if Sunnet is approved for use in Diet Coke, millions of Americans will be further exposed to large amounts of the additive. The Cocal Cola firm plans to use a blend of Sunett with NutraSweet (the brand name for the artificial sweetener Aspartame) in Diet Coke popular as â€Å"the nation’s leading diet soda and the third-largest selling soft drink† (BBN 7C), after Sunett’s approval by the FDA. The Hoechst Celanese disputes the CSPI’s opposition to the artificial sweetener, â€Å"arguing that Sunett is already in some 3,000 products in 80

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Islam in India. Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Islam in India. - Research Paper Example Arabs were the first who were responsible to spread Islam in south- Asia. The first mosque which was built in India was built by Malik Bin Deenar in Kodungallurin in 612 C.E. during the time of Prophet Muhammad. Mappilas were the first community which converted to Islam. The role of sufis was of great importance in the spread of Islam in India. Sufism played an important role which greatly helped the Hindus to understand the Muslim faith.Hazrat khwaja muin-ud-din Chisti, nizam ud-din Auliya, Amir Khusro and many others trained the other sufis to propagate Islam in various parts of India. Islam is a religion which has the quality to co-exist with other religions.The muslim poets, writers, played a very important role to help india to fight against the British.Not only Muslim men but a lot of muslim women contributed against the struggle of freedom from the british.some of them include Bi Amma,Asghari Begum, Hazrat Mahal etc.The muslims came to india in 711c.e.The Muslims established t heir capital at dehli by the 11th century.Many of the Mughal emperors were fanatic such as the Aurangzeb , during his reign the minorities suffered a lot because he forcibly destroyed the religious places of worship of other communities and built mosques on them but Akbar was liberal and this can be seen from the monuments which he has built .They represent different religions . The process of conversion to islam began in the 8th century which included hindus who belonged to lower class.Some of the british visitors were given permission by Akbar to stay in the eastern part of india but they misused their power and collabarated with the rajas and nawabs to fight against the mughals and muslim rulers and after fighting for almost two centuries, at last the british succeded and the mughal empire came to an end in 1857. The first War of independence was established in 1857 and in 1858 the Indian act was transferred to the British. Indian National Congress was established in 1885 to stre ngthen relations with the british.In 1905 partition of Bengal gave the Muslims a majority state. In the following year 1906, Muslim league was established.The downfall of the Mughal Empire greatly affected the muslims.Their laziness led to the downfall of Muslims in the sub-continent. Although Quaid-e-Azam was the embassador of hindu-muslim unity, he wanted to bring the Hindus and muslims closer but due to religious differences it became impossible. Both the nations thought that the other nation is harmful to them due to which the British took advantage and there existed more chaos and confusion among the two nations. On this basis the Muslims decided that for the protection of their culture, tradition, religion it is necessary to demand a separate homeland for themselves. A place where they could practice their religion without any fear.For this purose All-india muslim league was establihed so that the demands of the muslims of sub-continent could be properly addressed.Allama iqbal presented the concept of a separate homeland.Sir Syed Ahmed Khan played an imporatnt role in re-awakening the muslims of the un-divided india. He wanted the muslims to get educated so that they would not be lefet behind as the hindus were extremely qualified.The muslims refused to learn english and the hindus knew english and therefore were given favourable positions in government. He wanted the muslims to realize that education has a lot of importance.For this purpose he established M.A.O (Mohammad Anlo Oriental college). The congress made a lot of mistakes which convinced the Muslims that they cannot live together.

Monday, September 23, 2019

Write a 1,000-word essay about the value and limitations of the

Write a 1,000-word about the value and limitations of the document in understanding American foreign policy-making and US relations with China (both Natio - Essay Example It reflects some clear thinking in the US State Department in its understanding of issues related to China. Broadly put, the proposed policy aims to build a calibrated relationship with China but at the same time have a strong upper hand in this relationship. This paper provides a wider perspective to the ‘draft document’ and contextualizes the policy of the US government towards China to the prevailing national and international political scenarios of the time. The proposed policy rightly aims to assist the Chinese people by providing them with food stocks. The ‘Great Leap Forward’ beginning 1958 which was about simultaneous development of agricultural and industrial sectors, turned out to be a major economic disaster for China, leaving, by some estimates around 20 million dead. Providing China with much needed food relief and other humanitarian aid such as medical information and advanced warnings about natural disasters, in this scenario, would have indeed helped Chinese people (if not the Chinese Government) warm up to the Americans. What the proposed policy fails to take into account is that China has always been a ‘closed’ State. Even in 2008, in an era of internet and mobile phones, the Chinese people are largely dependent on government filtered sources of information (Jonathan Zittrain and Benjamin Edelman). Attempting to influence opinions of Chinese people in the 1960s would have only been tougher. By attempting to reward the Japanese and Indians, the proposed policy rightly aims to strengthen the nuclear capabilities, albeit for peaceful purposes, of China’s neighbours, and in turn, build a perception that China’s military capabilities are neither unique nor so strong as to push the smaller neighbours into China’s fold. The US strategy of containment of China is envisages the willingness of the smaller players such as Japan or larger ones such as India to become a pawn in

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Legislative Aspects of Nursing informatics Coursework

Legislative Aspects of Nursing informatics - Coursework Example vent that the breach involves more than 500 patients, then it is imperative that the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) also receive similar notification. Secondly, the act also establishes the necessity for health institutions through HER system to make it possible for individuals to access their PHI in an electronic format. In line with this, the act establishes that those who receive incentives should ensure that the system is of meaningful use, failure to which results in withdrawal of the said incentives. The act has also specified that vendors providing HER system directly qualify as business associates. To this end, the act intends to make it possible for more vendor/provider dialogue regarding matter of mutual interest, so that service provision becomes more effective. These reforms have potential impact in the practice of psychiatry. For instance, the act provides quality measure incentives through the Maintenance of Certification Program (MOCP), (American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2013). In addition to participation in MOCP for up to one year, the law requires that physicians must submit data on quality measures through the MOCP under PQRI. McGinigle and Mastrian (2013) observe three topical issues that are encountered in health informatics namely leadership challenges, limited functionality in clinical practice and education in terms of necessary competencies. Regarding leadership challenges, McGinigle and Mastrian note that there exists a knowledge gap within leadership in the sector, and more specific the nursing industry. IN the nursing context, the two advance that there is need for nurse leaders to acquire current skill set and knowledge that will allow them to understand and adopt modern information technologies imperative to delivery of quality care. It is therefore important for nurses and other medical practitioners alike to gain the necessary knowledge. On limited functionality in clinical practice, McGinigle

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Merchant of Venice Assesment Essay Example for Free

Merchant of Venice Assesment Essay In this assessment I will analyse Shakespeare’s use of language, structure and dramatic techniques to present the relationship between Shylock and the Christians at different points of the play. I will first look at Act 1 Scene 3, where we learn that Shylock has suffered mercilessly at the hands of the Christians and now harbors an almost sadistic hatred towards them. This can be evidence by Shylock’s statement to Antonio. â€Å"You†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦gabardine,†. This statement allows the audience to gain an understanding of Shylock’s feelings and hatred towards Antonio. However, what is fascinating about this quote is Shakespeare’s use of the words â€Å"you† and â€Å"dog†. This is because, although Shylock and Antonio have never met before, Shylock’s use of the word â€Å"you† suggests otherwise. The reason behind Shakespeare’s use of personal and direct language is to allow the audience to imagine Antonio as the embodiment of Christianity. Thus, letting the Elizabethan audience know that Shylock’s feelings of hatred is actually aimed towards the Christians and hence the Elizabethan audience themselves, therefore causing further resent and prejudice towards Shylock’s character. While the use of the word â€Å"dog†, which is repeated throughout the play, not only symbolises that the Christians see Shylock as beneath them and will never be their equal. But also reinforces, through the use of repetition, that Shylock is seen as an infestation to the Elizabethan society, which in turn adds to Shylock’s humiliation and determination for revenge. However, due to his social ranking Shylock must consciously recognise his position of inferiority and must also treat the Christians with a, one sided, respect, despite his affluent position. Shakespeare manages to show this involuntary respect from Shylock to Antonio by structuring the dialog between these two main characters in poetry. Furthermore the level of hatred that Shylocks possesses towards the Christians can be evidence from Shylocks aside speech to the audience. â€Å"If†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦bear him.† The â€Å"ancient grudge† in this case being that Antonio is a Christian. This aside statement not only strengthens the idea that the mutual disdain between Shylock and the Christian is religious in nature, but also Shylock’s obsessive need for revenge, a revenge he hopes to achieve through Antonio’s bond. Because of this aside speech, most modern day audiences would be able to sympathise with Shylocks need for retribution. However, for an Elizabethan audience, Shylock’s aside speech will have no sympathetic effect. Instead it was a dramatic techniques used by Shakespeare to add further prejudice towards Shylock’s character and to add comedic value to the play. In Act 3 Scene 1, we see the seriousness of Shylock’s sadistic nature when he discovers that Antonio cannot fulfil his bond. Arguing that his obsession for revenge is just and he is entitled to revenge, in the same way that any Christian would. â€Å"hath†¦..?†, â€Å"If†¦..revenge!† This iconic speech uses a number of persuasive techniques to justify Shylocks feelings and need for retribution. First notice Shakespeare’s use of rhetorical questions in quick succession. This technique causes the audience to think, agree and actually sympathise with Shylock argument to some extent. This agreement is then reinforced, through the use of imagery, allowing the audience to gain a better understanding of Shylock’s feeling and emotions. Thus cause the audience to realise some of the prejudice that is currently present towards the Jewish community. In conclusion Shakespeare has used a variety of techniques and forms of languages to effectively highlight the prejudice towards the Jewish community during the Elizabethan period. In the two act that I mentioned it is clear that Shylocks feels he deserve justice through personal revenge and that he is not respected in the society, due to the Christians arrogant and prejudice vies towards his people. Although most of use might not morally agree with Shylock’s approach in seeking retribution, there is no denying that the language used by Shakespeare is a strong reminder of what persecution can have on an individual.

Friday, September 20, 2019

An Analysis Of Cigarette Ignition Environmental Sciences Essay

An Analysis Of Cigarette Ignition Environmental Sciences Essay Hydrogen or deuterium gas when mixed with air or oxygen forms a highly flammable mixture over a wide range of proportions; they also form flammable mixtures with chlorine and the oxides of nitrogen, further, they will also react spontaneously with fluorine and chlorine trifluoride. Because it is impossible to guarantee that any system will be completely leak free every effort should be made to exclude all sources of ignition. The designer and the user should give careful consideration to the risk from a wide variety of ignition sources e.g. smoking, flames, hot surfaces, electrical and other sparking, static electricity, shock, impact, catalytic and chemical action. , Thus petrol vapour mixed with air has a lower flammability limit of just over 1% and an upper limit of 6% by volume petrol vapour in air, at normally encountered temperatures. Concentrations below the lower limit are said to be lean mixtures and those above the upper limit rich mixtures Flammability For flammable liquids with flash point temperatures above normal ambient, e.g., kerosene, white spirit and diesel oil, an ignition source has to ignite not only the flammable mixture of fuel vapour but to generate this mixture in the first place by heating the bulk liquid. Ignition delay A further factor in the mechanism of ignition of gases and vapours is the ignition delay time or induction period, that is the time period between bringing a potentially flammable mixture to a condition where it will ignite, Ignition delay times are dependent on temperature and are reduced with an increase in temperature. Cigarette composition and combustion Composition The most commonly encountered, manufactured cigarette consists of a cylindrical packed bed of 1 g of shredded tobacco enclosed in paper and is generally 8 mm in diameter and 65 mm to 85 mm long. The strands of tobacco are non-uniformly packed and the volume of the cigarette consists of about 75 percent free space. Often a smoke filter is attached and this is typically 20 mm long and contains cellulose acetate, paper fibres and sometimes charcoal. The Virginia tobacco typically used in the manufacture of British cigarettes contains less than 0.1 % of nitrates. One obvious difference in their burning characteristics is that hand-rolled cigarettes tend to go out unless puffed by the smoker, whereas a cigarette with tightly packed tobacco will smoulder for about twenty minutes with no assistance from the smoker. The experimental work reported here and the discussion relates to manufactured cigarettes. The smoke itself consists of mainstream smoke, from the maximum gas phase temperature (850Â °C) was at the centre butt end of the cigarette during suction by a smoker, and. sidestream smoke during the smoking cycle. The term used here for the suction or drawing process during smoking is puffing of the cigarette. One puff of a cigarette is, there- the fore, one suction or draw by the smoker. There are two main regions at the tip on the coal, namely the combustion zone A and the pyrolysis and distillation zone B. Combustible vapours are produced in zone B prior to ignition in zone A In the interval between puffs, the natural convection flow of air around the combustion coal in an upwards direction sustains burning, and forms the sidestrearn smoke. Baker [33] employed two different methods of measurement, one for the solid phase and one for the gas phase, and his results are generally accepted as being representative of the temperatures encountered inside a burning cigarette tip. smoking machine, taking a 35 cm3 volume of 2 sec duration, once per minute of both the gas and solid phases, were determined. These temperatures can, therefore, be regarded as approaching the maximum attained during the drawing of a cigarette surprisingly, the maximum solid phase temperature in the area region of 900Â °C-950Â °C was attained at the points of maximum air flow, i.e., 0.2 mm to 1 mm forward of the paper burn line. This is the area of the cigarette where a distinct pale red glow can be seen when a cigarette is puffed. The maximum gas phase temperature (850Â °C) was at the centre of the cigarette coal. Ignition of gases and vapours by hot surfaces Although the tip of a cigarette cannot be treated simply as a hot surface in a discussion about its potential to ignite substances, it is useful to consider such an ignition source and the combustion parameters involved. Powell has reviewed much detailed experimental work on hot surface ignition [42], and the results provide an insight into some of the reasons for ignition or otherwise of flammable gas and vapour mixtures by a lighted cigarette. Some of the factors involved in the ignition of flammable mixtures of vapour or gas by hot surfaces are: temperature of heated surface; contact time of gas and surface; movement of gas; composition of surface; shape and size of surface; chemical nature of substance; ignition delay time. Ignition of gases and vapours by lighted cigarettes Experiments carried out at the US Bureau of Mines found that a smoked (puffed) cigarette would only ignite methane air mixture if the latter were caused to flow across the glowing cigarette at 1000 ft per min. Attempts were made to ignite propane, petrol and butane with lighted cigarettes without success and similar results were obtained with white spirit Laboratory studies of ignition by a lighted cigarette were carried out by Yockers and Segal testing the liquids carbon disulphide, ethyl ether, benzene, toluene, xylene, acetone, methylethylketone, amylacetate, ethylacetate, ethyl benzene, ethanol, methanol, petroleum ether, gasoline and Stoddard solvent (white spirit) [50]. They suggested that it might be thought that a cigarette would ignite these substances as their ignition temperatures were lower than those encountered in the burning tip of a cigarette. Carbon disulphide was readily ignited and ignition also occurred during one of the tests with toluene. Ignition of toluene could not be achieved, however, in several subsequent tests under the conditions which prevailed during the one ignition. It was speculated that this one ignition was perhaps owing to a hot spot when a solid chunk of tobacco seems to spit or sizzle. (It was later suggested that as some tobaccos in the USA contain nitrates, a concentration of this substance could give rise to a hot spot as described in Yockers and Segals paper.) They also tried without success to ignite natural gas (mostly methane), butane and acetylene. Carbon disulphide, acetylene, ethylene oxide, hydrogen sulphide and hydrogen phosphide were readily ignited. Diethyl ether was ignited but only in a closed vessel and after a long delay. Included in the substances which were not ignited were methane, butane, benzene, hexane and cyclohexane. In 1989 scientists at the Research and Technology Division of British Gas studied the effects of lighted cigarettes on methane and ethylene. Six tests were carried out wit smoked cigarettes in natural gas-air mixtures over a concentration range of 5.6% (v/v) to 9.6% (v/v) natural gas in air; tests were also carried out with ethylene-air mixtures Flammability limits The low values of the upper flammable limits of methane, gasoline and propane suggest that in the burning tip of the cigarette or indeed at the surface, oxygen is not present in a sufficient concentration to allow ignition. At the temperatures encountered (700Â °C to 950Â °C), the upper limit would be much higher than those quoted for ambient temperatures but insufficient oxygen molecules are present. Some regions of the cigarette coal are virtually depleted of oxygen and in other areas less than 10% oxygen by volume was measured. In addition to this, carbon dioxide is produced during the combustion of the tobacco and it has been shown by Jones et a1 [54] that gasoline vapour-air-carbon dioxide mixtures are non-flammable when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the mixture exceeds 28.9% by volume. Although some combustible gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen are produced, inside the cigarette coal there is a reducing atmosphere depleted in oxygen. A cigarette tip does not, therefore, have sufficient heat energy both to strip off vapour from the liquid surface and to ignite the air vapour mixture produced. Auto-ignition temperature For a burning cigarette, a given parameter involved in the combustion process cannot be discussed in isolation from the others but for ignition by hot surfaces the number of these factors is reduced. It has been found that at the temperatures encountered in a cigarette where the smoulder is stable (ca 700Â °C to 775Â °C) ignition of methane and gasoline by a hot surface in this temperature range is highly unlikely. For methane, temperatures in excess of 1,000C are needed for ignition. Temperatures in the region of 900Â °C to 950Â °C are generated when a cigarette is puffed, so even at this elevated temperature methane would not be expected to be ignited. During the puff of a cigarette in a flammable atmosphere there will be a continuous flow of fuel and air drawn into the combustion zone. Only substances with short ignition delay times, of around 1 millisec or less, at the temperatures encountered in the cigarette, will be expected to be ignited. For substances with long ignition delay times cooler reactants would be swept into the path of reacting fuel and oxygen molecules, before a flame could propagate through the mixture. Namely that methane and gasoline constituents are not ignited, diethyl ether is but after a long delay and hydrogen and carbon disulphide are ignited. Quenching distance The ignition of flammable gases and vapours will probably take place in the airlgas space between the glowing tobacco fibres. It is possible that some substances are ignited in this region but the flame does not propagate to the flammable gas outside the cigarette. Guest [44] found that some surfaces, which formed a layer of scale or ash, e.g., iron or impure carbon, did not ignite natural gas mixtures with ease, and that surfaces which were strongly catalytic or possessed an interstitial structure required higher temperatures. This latter effect could be similar to the flame arresting property of a fine-mesh wire gauze (e.g., as in the Davy Lamp). Heat is conducted away by the gauze from the reacting gaslair mixture, lowering the temperature of the reactants and preventing the progression of flame to unburned fuellair mixture. This phenomenon is related to the quenching distance of the fuel and these distances for stoichiometric mixtures of fuels (at 20Â °C and one atmosphere) tested by cigarettes are given in Table 2 [57] and [58]. The substances which are ignited by a cigarette have the shortest quenching distances. These are the substances where, because of their reactivity, the loss of heat or destruction of reacting molecules at a boundary is not significant until the dimensions of the boundary are small. As with the other parameters discussed, this alone cannot provide an explanation why some substances are ignited and others are not. For example diethyl ether, which is ignited by cigarettes, has a greater quenching distance than hexane, which is not ignited.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Creationism for Kids on the Web :: Religious Issues Internet Science Essays

Creationism for Kids on the Web How is it that this age old question of evolution versus creation can turn otherwise friends and colleagues against one another? Much of it has to do with the very fact that we are discussing the matter and how it relates to children. It seems that much of the controversy that is stirred up by this issue revolves around how children will perceive Darwinian â€Å"social teachings† or social Darwinism. Will studying evolution corrupt the morals of school-aged children? I began my research pondering the following: Can children that look at website-based material learn the latest material from both a scientific and biblical perspective? Some sub-questions that emerged are Can students learn about both sides in order to form their own opinions? Are creation-based websites dangerous because they make students believe that in order to be good â€Å"Christians† it is their duty to turn only towards â€Å"the truth† and away from science or anything that might shed doubts upon their beliefs? After researching three main websites and speaking to two of the three website originators I’ve become convinced that teaching children to stop questioning once they’ve been taught the answer is a dangerous position. In no other subject in life do we encourage children to stop their minds from growing once they have attained a certain belief of the way things ought to be. Why is it that we often teach religion without question? This paper seeks to examine two main themes. The first is a brief history of how creationism became so critical an issue for debate, especially in terms of children. Why are most Christian (evangelists) so particular about what their children learn in school about evolution, even to the extent that some send their children to home school or private institutions? Secondly, I look at three main websites that are dedicated in full or in part to educating young minds about creationism or creation-science. The sites,, and all have similar ideas about what is appropriate for school-aged youth to be learning about creationism. After talking to two of the website creators/maintainers, I was able to try to understand more fully the philosophy behind educating children on the principles of Creationism. Part I. Literature and Website Review: Creationist Views Creation ,Creationism, Creation –science: A brief History Creationism is defined by the American Heritage Dictionary as the â€Å"belief in the literal interpretation of the account of the creation of the universe and of all living things related in the Bible.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Language in Dante’s Inferno Essay -- Divine Comedy Inferno Essays

Language in Dante’s Inferno What happens to language in hell? In Dante’s Inferno, the journeying pilgrim explores language’s variations and nuances as he attempts to communicate with hell’s pitiable and sordid inhabitants, despite multiple language barriers and relentless cacophonies. Dante thematically unifies language’s inconsistencies in hell; that is, he associates the pilgrim’s abortive attempts to communicate with particular shades, and the incomprehensible languages and sounds that beleaguer him, with a symbol from Christian mythology: the Tower of Babel. Dante juxtaposes this Christian myth with Virgil’s symbolic association with elevated speech in the Inferno. Virgil functions as the pilgrim’s guide and poetic inspiration, and despite his position in hell as a pagan, Virgil still transmits divinely-inspired language to his pupil. Thus, notwithstanding his amorphous physicality as a shade in hell, Virgil represents lucidity and focused thought, which comf orts the pilgrim and provides a reprieve from hell’s dissonant sounds. Ultimately, the pilgrim’s relationship to language is multifarious: it enables the pilgrim to connect with Virgil and discover his place in the tradition of famous poets through divinely-inspired and intimate speech; yet, it isolates and horrifies him when it is incomprehensible, amplifying his individual suffering; thus, ultimately drawing him closer to his understanding of the shades’ own torture. Virgil’s enlightened language spawns partially from Beatrice, a divine inhabitant of heaven, who worries about the well-being of the pilgrim, and partially from his status in a long tradition of famous poets, beginning with Homer. Yet, despite Virgil’s association with enlightened and elevated ... ... His relationship to Virgil is enriched by their similar relationship to language as poets, and by the challenge of creating a poetic legacy on earth that counters the legacy of the tower of Babel in hell. Ultimately, the pilgrim’s desire reflects the reality of Dante’s own legacy, one that is immeasurably influential. Works Cited Alighieri, Dante. The Inferno. Vol 1. Trans. Robert M. Durling. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Barolini, Teodolinda. Dante’s Poets: Textuality and Truth in the Comedy. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1984. Dronke, Peter. Dante and Medieval Latin Traditions. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1986. Durling, Robert M., Ronald L. Martinez. Notes. The Inferno. Vol 1. By Dante Alighieri. Trans. Robert M. Durling. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Eco, Umberto. Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages. Trans. Hugh Bredin. New Haven, CT.: Yale UP, 1986.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

IBM Selling Plan :: GCSE Business Marketing Coursework

IBM Selling Plan Executive Summary We have selected IBM as a prospective buyer for Nidec’s spindle motors. For the past several months, Nidec has been the sole supplier of cooling fans for the production of IBM’s servers. Using this strong relationship as a base, we will present three main reasons for IBM to use Nidec as a supplier for spindle motors as well. First, Nidec is able to charge a lower price than competitors. This feature is possible because Nidec’s 70% spindle motor market share allows the company to achieve economies of scale. Second, Nidec is committed to pursuing a double-win philosophy with its customers. IBM can count on Nidec to provide the best solution to its many design and production problems. Nidec will work with IBM and IBM’s suppliers to facilitate the design and production of new products. Finally, Nidec places primary focus on the quality of its products from design to delivery. With one of the lowest DPPM’s in the industry, Nidec has demonstrated its ability and dedication to maintaining a high level of consistency and reliability. We are scheduled to give a presentation to a commodity manager and commodity engineer from IBM’s hard disk drive department on February 22, 2000. This presentation will be persuasive in nature. It has one primary objective: closing the sale! By â€Å"closing the sale,† we mean securing a two-year agreement with IBM to purchase spindle motors exclusively from Nidec. If this objective cannot be met, we are confident that we will at least be able to secure a visit to Nidec’s site in San Jose. A plant visit would surely convince IBM that Nidec offers the best solution. Customer Background Customer Profile IBM is the world’s leading information technology company. From its beginning in 1890, the company has had a history of providing innovative solutions to complex problems. One of the more recent of IBM’s innovations is its server technology. IBM is widely known for producing high quality and powerful servers for a variety of businesses, including retail, manufacturing, finance, distribution, health, legal, transportation, insurance and education ( IBM produces dozens of different types of servers comprising five separate categories: AS/400, Netfinity, NUMA-Q, RS/6000, and S/390. These servers are sold in more than 120 countries and can run on over 49 different languages ( They are adaptable to multiple platforms, and are compatible with thousands of software programs. During the past several years, IBM has spent billions of dollars incorporating the most advanced technological capabilities into its servers.

Authority Essay

Define the term â€Å"authority.† What does it mean to be authoritative, and how do you go about establishing whether a source is, indeed, credible? Why is it important to not only invite authorities to speak in your writing, but also to establish your own authority as you write? Authority by definition: the power to give orders or make decisions, or the power or right to direct or control someone or something, or the confident quality of someone who knows a lot about something or who is respected or obeyed by other people (Merriam-Webster, 2010). Figures of authority are extraordinarily significant to the credibility within any paper. Including citation from members of society with an advanced skill set will not only solidify proposed ideas, but can also aid in swaying an argument (Ballenger, 17). Valid credibility can go a long way in improving the impact a piece makes on its reader. While it is important to include factual information of the writer’s proposed idea, it is equally important to establish a voice within the piece. Each article of information that comes from a professional standpoint can be a stepping stone towards the finished product of the writer’s work. Weaving an authoritative voice simultaneously strengthens the paper as well as the validity of the writer’s work. Lastly, citing authoritative individuals in a piece will grant the permission of their facts without sending the writer towards plagiarism. Although it is often unintentional, plagiarism happens quite frequently. It is imperative to the writer that citations of an authority figure (ie: scholars, researchers, critics, or specialists) are included in their piece to ensure the professionalism of their message can be brought to light using convincing sources.

Monday, September 16, 2019

European History-The Later middle Ages Essay

Black Death was a plague that swept across Europe in the 14th century resulting in an irrevocable change to Europe’s religious structure which was highly dominated by the Roman Catholic Church. Besides, Black Death resulted in harassment of minority groups such as Jews on not only grounds of religious detestation but also a way of attacking the church or the kings who were perceived to protect them. This was heightened by feelings that the church as an institution had failed to provide social guidance equally among all people. The Pope condemned the killings and tried to stop it but to no avail resulting in renewed religious fanaticism and fervor amid Black Plague. This resulted is weakening of the old connection between the society and the religion (Tuchman 20-50). The fact that the clergy were not able to banish or cure the disease and explain its causes resulted in cynicism toward church. At the time of Black Death the Pope was based in France and was seen to have abandoned church leadership for French monarchy hence leaving its people at the time of need. This compounded disillusionment among people towards the church and embraced other religious outfits such as Order of Flagellants. Subsequently, as the disease caused death in monasteries, few years later there was a shortage of clergy. New clergy members replaced those who had died but did not have life-long convictions hence resulting in more abuses and weakening of church position in the society (Tuchman 50). 2. The Hundred Years’ War occurred in the years between 1336 and 1453 and it was mostly between France and England. England traded with Flanders in exchange of its fleece for wine in the Southern France. This was a triangular-like trade in which English traded with France indirectly through Flanders. However, the king of France was persistently struggling to regain control over the wealth in Flanders as a result the English could not let it go as it could have meant their only source of foreign exchange is gone. In these misunderstandings, a civil war broke out whereby the English supported the manufacturing companies whereas the French supported land-owning nobility. Besides, the English had a control over duchy of Guienne in France. In this regard, King Edward III became disappointed with King Phillip IV’s broken promise to restore a part of the Guienne to the English. Additionally, King Phillip went against English wish and supported Scotland which angered England. This war became more complex as the right over the territorial control –dynast conflict- was coupled with conflict over succession of throne. For instance, King Edward III who had risen to the throne in 1327 could have claimed to succeed Charles IV of France after he died in 1328 without any heir. Some years later, King Edward declared himself the King of France to provoke France so that he can attract resistance from them (Allmand 20-50). The war resulted in paradigm shift in terms of tactics, weapons, and technology employed in military war. For instance, the use of cavalry which by then was powerful machinery was abandoned for longbow. Other weapons introduced during the war include gunpowder and cannons. The war revealed the extent to which royal authority in England could be questioned especially in the succession lapse when King Edward III died. The Peasant’s revolt in 1381 witnessed an uprising against the throne by peasants leading to the King (Richard III) giving in to their demands. The war rekindled patriotism and nationalism among the French nationals. The country transformed from being a feudal monarchy to being a centralized state. Besides, the growth of French as a royal and commerce language disappeared during the war (Anne 5-20). 3. It is in the fourteenth century that majority of European countries experienced some of the worst natural disasters and social upheavals. The first disaster is the Little Ice Age, a climatic disaster. During this period, epidemics, famine and heavy rains became evident resulting in weakened agricultural productivity. The second natural disaster during the fourteenth century was The Black Death, a plague that nearly brought life to a standstill in Europe. Social upheavals include the hundred years’ war (1337-1450), internal church wrangles in the Catholic Church, and rise up of Islam militants. As a result of The Little Ice Age, France experienced heavy rains around 1315 that culminated into famine in the later years. All these disasters had a large impact on drastically reducing the overall population of Europe as many individuals died. It is also important to note that a lot of minorities for instance Jew were killed or extradited for Europe especially during Black Death. It is also during this time that the highly dominant Catholic Church received much criticism from the society. Additionally, the Church differed with the monarchy when taxes were imposed on its officials resulting into ‘Babylonian Exile’. In 1377 amid the crisis, Pope Gregory XI relocated to Rome for Avignon, France (Tuchman 25-70). 4. In the 14th century, Italy like many other European countries experienced a lot of hardships economically, socially, politically, and in religion. Besides, in the mid 14century, Italy undergone rebirth what is popularly referred to as ‘renaissance’. In the cities where the feudal system was not strong for instance in the northern frontier –Venice, Florence, and Milan- a strong economical and political atmosphere became dominant and their political structure ruled surrounding regions impacting significant influence over them. In the same period, south of Italy became highly dominated by Papal administration especially in Rome. The papal administration exerted a lot of rivalry to the Northern cities as well as influencing to a large extent the Italian politics and lifestyles. During the 14th century, the political elite advocated for the principle of humanism by arguing that a person can achieve considerably while in this world in terms of politics and life among others. Therefore, the medieval perceptions that people had changed drastically as they geared towards showcasing their talents (Jackson 310-320). 5. In the fourteenth century, the Roman Catholic had strong influence on the political and social life in most parts of Italy whereas Germany was under monarch rule. For instance, Germany was ruled mostly by the Habsburgs with power centering around three houses of dynasty: Habsburg, Wittelsbach, and Luxemburg. Therefore most parts of Germany were controlled by the emperor. It is also during the fourteenth century that Germany flourished although it was hit by the Black Plague. In Italy the papal administration and secular leadership was not totally in agreement in terms of managing economic resources and to develop central governments. Subsequently, around the year 1300, the well established Holy Roman Empire failed to maintain its centralized form of governance across Europe resulting into war between different states such as the barbaric German tribes that invaded Italy. This culminated into having a power vacuum until in 17th century. In Italy for instance, the independence of some of its states in the North coupled with wrangles between the in the Papacy prevented realization of a strong centralized governance (Tuchman 50). 6. It is in the 14th century that the Church experienced faced difficult times and gradually lost its prestige and power in the society. The Church failed to provide moral and spiritual guidance to the people and it can be explained in three distinct stages. First is the Avignon Papacy of 1305 to 1378. During the time pope was located in Avignon, France and officials were seen to monarch’s puppet. They were corrupt, disregarded social morals, were left out in condemning the hundred years’ war, and failed in their responsibility during the Black Plague. A lot of groups also criticized the Church for owning wealth and property as this was against God’s teaching because Jesus owned nothing. Some people also claimed that Church should consist of members only and not be led by a single individual. At this time papacy defended its righteousness persistently as well as attacking its critics but it is evident that papacy lost its moral authority and credibility to the people (Jackson 322). The second event that degraded credibility of papacy was the great schism of between 1378 and 1415. After Gregory XI died, the College of Cardinals in Rome was forced by an angry Roman mob to choose a pope of Italian origin. Urban VI was chosen and immediately after, French cardinals protested by fleeing Rome into Avignon where they chose another French pope as they claimed the election was not free and fair. This culminated into having two papal administrations at Rome and at Avignon hence resulting in financial crisis. Besides, the notion that Church was autonomous from state and secular sanctions failed to be realized. Wrangles existed between the two centers of power leading to excommunication claims by either of the side for receiving sacraments. Third is the Council of Pisa that met in 1408 and resolved to elect a new pope thereby dismissing the two rival popes. They based this on the principle of conciliarism. However, this was not adhered to by the two rival popes and resulted in having three popes. This complicated the matters more in regard to who had supreme power to elect pope leading to the Holy Roman Emperor backing the Conciliarists in holding another council to resolve the issue in 1415 (Jackson 323). . 7. The religious rift which occurred in the Church around 11th century A. D. is what widely referred to as the Great Schism. The Roman Catholic Church and the Geek Catholic also known Greek Orthodox Church separated during the p[period which lasted between 1378 and 1415. The acrimony between the West patriarchate in Rome and East patriarchates in Jerusalem, Antioch, Byzantium, and Alexandria was on of the cause. This was heightened more by language differences because the West spoke Latin whereas East spoke Greek. Besides, the rift grew more when Emperor Constantine considered transferring the capital from Rome to Byzantium. Additionally, during the same time German tribes invaded Europe leading to political instability (Jackson 323). This political turmoil coupled with geographical distances and economic hardship lead to ultimate separation of West from the East. As a result it is only a few theologians from West who could speak the predominant Greek language in the East. Communication broke lose among the west and east clergy. There was decreased literacy in the West as compared to highly educated East populace. Thus the church had significant influence among the East populace. The clergy in the East was capable of translating the Bible into local languages and with time it became mature enough to establish self governance. The occurrence of the Great Schism was also a sign of failure in leadership among the church officials in the 14th century (Jackson 324). Works Cited Allmand, C. T. The hundred year’s war: England and France at war, c. 1300-c. 1450. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1988. Anne Curry. The Hundred Years War. 2nd ed. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror. New York: Knopf, 1978. Jackson, Spielvogel J. Western Civilization. 7th ed. Cengage Learn

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Catfish and Mandala Essay

Andrew Pham, author of Catfish and Mandala, is on a journey of self-exploration. Family dysfunction, the illusions of the past, and the inability to move forward and find meaning to life when living between two cultures, are all catalysts’ for Pham return Vietnam. Contrary to being welcomed with open arms, Andrew is referred to as Viet-kieu when he is in Vietnam, a derogatory term meaning Vietnamese-American. Vietnamese people feel that the Viet-kieu abandoned everything about their culture when transplanted to America. This is an additional layer to the struggles Andrew faces. Andrew’s life is fractured into many pieces. His family is plagued with deep-seated hostility and trauma that developed long before his birth. From the abuse his father endured as a child and then transferred to his own children, the family decay after the Vietnam War, and the displacement of his family to America, Andrew has no sense of identity. Andrew is troubled with the duality of being Vietnamese and American and feels if he returns to Vietnam he will find meaning for his life. He does not assimilate to either culture and his anxiety grows as he tries to find a place to belong. Pham reminisces on his childhood, and includes deep memories of his other family members as well. The fissure in his family stems from the physical abuse and inability for the entire family to merge the two cultures and adapt together. The damage from the violence moves like a virus through the family, branching off and taking victim after victim. Chi-Minh, Andrew’s transsexual brother, cannot rise above the hardship and kills himself. Through out the book, Andrew goes back and forth giving the reader insight into Chi-Minh conflicts. Andrew never moves past Chi-Minh’s death and writes about his last moments with his brother,† It was my season of unraveling. And his as well. I couldn’t remember all, what he said. Nor what I said. Maybe he wished I’d said something. And I him. Perhaps we should have shared our troubled hearts. But in the end – My long-staying memory – I heard only the wavering catch in his voice† (334). Pham regrets not being able to open his heart to Chi-Minh, and overcome the emotional disconnect of the Vietna mese culture. Chi-Minh struggles to maintain a healthy existence and find life meaning. Sex change aside, Andrew blames the Vietnam War, family dysfunction and abuse, and a forced move to America as reasons for Chi-Minh’s short life and suicide. He draws parallels between his own struggles and Chi-Minh’s inability to create a life in America. The trauma of Chi-Minh’s death is an emotional vehicle for Andrew’s bike journey to Vietnam. As Children, Andrew and Chi were brutally beaten by their father. Even as a teenager, Chi survived a dreadful caning that resulted in her running away. Later, Andrew’s father recants his temper and wishes he could have â€Å"been more like an American father† because â€Å"They know how to cherish their children† (320). Andrew watches his own father struggle with being Vietnamese in an American society. He was use to a father who had a â€Å"survival instinct† and â€Å"refused victimization† (321). His brothers are homosexual, this is a point of embarrassment for Andrews father. Andrew tries to explain how they are successful and happy, but the definition of successful and happy are vastly different in the two countries, with his father being â€Å"Old-World† (321). Andrew realizes his entire family has trouble converging Vietnamese and American cultures and he is not the only victim of the abusive and dysfunctional life. In his preparation to bike across Vietnam and absorb the country that he believes keeps the roots of his existence; he is unaware of the drastic changes since the Vietnam War. Andrew remembers Vietnam through the eyes of a child and the memories are mostly happy and quite biased. Pham’s illusion of the past leads him to an emotional awakening while traveling and he compares current-day Vietnam to a prostitute. Vietnam has been reduced t o poverty in most places. Andrew remarks, â€Å"Saigon was thick with almsfolk, every market, every street corner, maggoty with misshapen men and women hawking their open sores and puss-yellow faces for pennies† (106). Although his description is putrid, Andrew weeps for the poor. Having sympathy for the impoverished is an American way of thinking, and this is a point of shame for his family that he stays with in Vietnam. Crying is seen as weakness in men. The reader sees the internal struggle that continues as Andrew tries to â€Å"be Vietnamese† or to â€Å"be American†. Andrew is repulsed by the cold hearts of his Vietnamese family members, and then ashamed for having ill feelings against his family. Andrew believed he would find his identity with the Vietnamese people and his life would move forward with strong meaning and purpose. Andrew goes through life living for his parents, living for the happiness of others, and in this neglects to find his true self. Before his ride to Vietnam , he rode to Mexico, then through the coast of America, and through Japan for 45 days. His physical journey mimics his stagnant and redundant state. He was wandering, living a superficial life. Andrew held the stress of the first-born son, to make his parents proud. He became an engineer, just as his mother told him he would do when he was four. He acted the role of the â€Å"Good Oriental employee† (25). Andrew recalls, â€Å"My father said ‘Good’ to me twice in my life. I showed him the glowing congratulatory letter from the national honor society†¦and for landing a cushy engineering post at a major airline† (24-25). As he travels, Andrew speaks as an American, and as a Vietnamese man. Chapter two begins with Andrew stating that he is â€Å"Vietnamese-American† (10). He lists out his likes and dislikes, implying that he has a strong sense of self. The reader soon finds out this is superficial. Andrew proclaims all of this to set up where he is now and gives a brief family history of the stark difference of where he came from. When he arrives to Vietnam, he is ready to embrace the culture and be Vietnamese. On the plane Andrew is divided by his feelings toward the Vietnamese as they fight for toys that have spilled, â€Å"Mortified by the Vietnamese’s behavior and equally dismayed that I feel an obligatory connection to them, I sink deeper in to my seat, resentful, ashamed of their incivility† (64). This is the beginning of the conflict Andrew faces about being American yet being from Vietnam. Instead of finding his way, his identity, value for his life, he is engorged with a larger paradox of emotion. Who is Andrew X. Pham? This is the question that Catfish and Mandala tries to answer by using memories and events of the past and journey of the present. A chasm opened in his family when they all integrated into American culture through very unique ways. The family inadvertently makes the journey of self-exploration difficult for each other, with Chi-Minh’s being virtually impossible. Abusive treatment of the children acts as a symptom of the disorder and illusion of self through out the entire family. Andrew writes his memoirs in a rhythmic motion swaying back and forth through past and present, in hopes of finding who he is to be in the future. Andrew is torn between being Vietnamese in America, and American in Vietnam. He is afflicted with living a placid half-life, never socially accepted by either society, and forced to carve his own path and make his own statement of self. From Vietnamese immigrant, to respected engineer, and now famous author and food critic, Andrew has found a way to merge the Vietnamese and American cultures to fit the mold of Andrew X. Pham, the Original. Works Cited Page Pham, Andrew X. Catfish and Mandala. New York: Farrar, Stratus and G, 1999. Print.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Is Science a Religion Essay

Is science a religion? This topic has been debated by many creationists and scientists alike. The philosophy of science makes no claims to knowledge about the supernatural or metaphysical and, by not so doing, is left with an enterprise that although hugely successful is also permanently on trial (Manne, 2010). The only thing scientists can agree upon is the empirical nature of science, but the steps from observations to theory are not without philosophical problems. DISCUSSION Thomas Kuhn thinks that scientific paradigms are essentially pictures of the world that are consistent with observations and logically coherent. But such pictures are necessarily always incomplete, at least until such time as we know everything, and our minds seem to struggle to accept this; it seems like there is an aesthetic compulsion to create harmonious images, even if that means filling in the spaces with metaphysical constructs. Andrew Brown states that the dictionary is wrong; science can be a religion too. He explains that if you strictly use the dictionary definition of science then it cannot be considered a religion, but if you look at science objectively you can see how it could be considered one. He makes a strong argument that religion has too many definitions for science to not be considered one. Richard Dawkins believes the opposite. He states that science is based upon verifiable evidence. Religious faith not only lacks evidence, its independence from evidence is its main virtue. Dawkins makes a good argument for science not being a religion. He even goes so far as to reconsider his stance only if science can get as much education time as religion does. Dawkins’ Atheist views are widely known but there are many more scientists that believe religion has no place in the world. Michael Ruse, on the other hand, asks why religion is not being taught in public schools while science is. His argument is that if â€Å"God exists† is a religious claim, why then is â€Å"God does not exist† not a religious claim? And if Creationism implies God exists and cannot therefore be taught, why then should science which implies God does not exist be taught? I am sure Dawkins was referring to Sunday school and bible study when he referred to science getting as much education time as science, but Ruse has a valid point. Science is taught in schools due to separation of church and state, therefore everyone has to learn science. Sunday school is voluntary. Peter Harrison demonstrated how the role of religion in the rise of modern science often focused on the way in which religion motivated particular individuals, or provided the essential content of approaches to nature. These relate to the origins of science and assume that, once established, modern science becomes self-justifying. However, seventeenth century criticisms of science, such as attacks on the Royal Society, suggest that science remained unimportant for quite some time. The rise of science to cultural importance in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was possible only because science was eventually able to establish itself as religiously useful initiative. Religion played a key role not only in the origins of modern science, but in providing the ongoing social sanctions that ensured its persistence and rise to prominence. This is a concept I am sure Dawkins would not appreciate, yet it has merit. The relationship between Science and Religion can be explained from two discrete points of view. Some would argue that scientific explanations are the only means of explaining our existence, while others would argue that religion and the story of creation provide a sufficient amount of the world’s conception. Religion and science both have the same basis, which are truth and understanding. It is this similarity that allows a direct link between science and religion. I believe that there is sufficient evidence to prove that science and religion are compatible. Albert Einstein had the same opinion when he presented the idea of the nature of light that was argued for hundreds of years. Scientology is also a proven example of compatibility between religion and science. Also, when looking at the two from a more general point of view, it would be obvious to say that they can both work together to give us a better understanding of the universe. In the early 1700’s, a constructive debate on the true nature of light led to various arguments and theories. The â€Å"corpuscular† theory, which was more religious based, depicted light being tiny particles that were transferred from a source like the Sun to a destination. A more scientific theory suggested that light was a wave phenomenon where the energy was carried by a wave motion and not by movement of actual particles. In the early 1900’s, Albert Einstein discovered that light was both a wave and it was composed of tiny particles. He felt that both sides were right all along and both contributed to finding out the true nature of light. With this discovery, he felt that there was a strong link between science and religion. â€Å"Science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind† (Einstein, A). Saying this, he believed strongly in the fact that religion and science were compatible. He believed that religion was a byproduct of fear and a tool to help the primitive human mind deal with it. He believed that many leaders and rulers incorporated religion into their daily functions to secure their rule. The question â€Å"is science a religion? † still remains. The problem may lie in how science and religion differentiate in their distinct methodologies of searching for knowledge and belief. Science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on scientific method, it attempts to collect accurate information about the shared reality and to model it in a way that can be used to make reliable. They have concrete and quantitative predictions about events; everything has a hypothesis and has reasons to prove it. Science gains their knowledge through scientific method: testing hypotheses to develop theories through elucidation of facts or evaluation by experiments. It develops theories of the world which best fit the observed physical observed evidence. It can be categorized into two major types of sciences: human science and natural science and they rely mainly on empirical evidence. Religion is a set of beliefs and is related to both the personal practices related to communal faith and to group rituals and communication stemming from shared conviction. Theologians believe in the omnipotent power that God has, they put faith on God and use religion as a tool to satisfy their unanswerable questions and desire to know. Some religious people maintain that religious knowledge is absolute and infallible. However, the knowledge each person believes in varies as religious knowledge varies from religion and each individual. Science tends to be more tangible while religion is more imperceptible according to senses. There is domestic danger in being a world religious leader and technological powerhouse. Religious commitment and leadership in science and technology greatly enlarges the potential for conflict between faith and science in the United States. The relationship between religion and views of science should be of interest not just to scientists and social scientists concerned with public opinion research, but to policy makers as well. Public opinion has significant impact upon the making of public policy. Commonly held perceptions about particular scientific findings could help determine the eventual shape of laws and other policies for issues such as abortion or climate change (Keeter, 2007). Tradition has taught mankind that religion and science are two competing theories that can never be intermixed. Science and religion put forth competing theories on how the world was created, who is responsible for such creation, and what happens to individuals when they die. Further, science proposes solutions for many of society’s problems that many religions clearly define as wrong, such as abortion, stem cell research, and cloning. Early scientists and philosophers integrated science and religion to explain the course and state of the cosmos. For instance, Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, and Newton all asserted that mathematical relations, the foundation of science, were a product of God. According to the four, it was God who invented mathematics and then imposed mathematical laws on the universe to back them up. More than 100 years ago, William James remarked, â€Å"I do not see why a critical science of religions might not eventually command as general a public adhesion as is commanded by a physical science†. In James view, studying religion by way of science could shed more light on the issue than philosophy alone. James believed that philosophy fell short in that it failed to â€Å"capture the depth, motion, and vitality of religion†. By focusing on religion from a scientific point of view, researchers could better determine the concreteness of the religious experience. So, is science a religion? The answer is – it depends on who you ask.  There is no concrete evidence to prove that it is or isn’t. I tend to believe that it could be. People like Richard Dawkins say emphatically no, yet he has blind faith that â€Å"what science cannot explain today, it will be able to explain tomorrow† (McGrath, pg. 148). Some have even gone so far as to compare Dawkins’ â€Å"infatuation† with Darwin with the Christian’s worship of Jesus Christ. I have not read anything that proves this but it could be another example of how science can be viewed as a religion. Either way, it seems that some level of faith is required for both and we can learn a lot from each one.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Australian Economy over the last two years Essay

Australian Economy over the last two years - Essay Example In the currently globalized world with maximum financial interconnectedness, problems in a particular country’s economy could arise mainly because of negative factors in the world economy. Thus, when the global recession started happening in United States in 2009-2009, it spread to various countries and its negative effects were felt all over the world including Australia. Although, Australia is geographically isolated, it is very much part of the world economy, and so economic recession in United States and Europe had ripple effects in Australia, necessitating the Australian government and the Australian Reserve Bank to initiate various measures. So, this paper will discuss how successful is the Australian Government and the Reserve Bank of Australia in running the Australian economy over the last two years in the immediate aftermath of the economic downturn, particularly focusing on the macro economic policies adopted by both the entities to avert the crisis and importantly to elevate the Australian economy. Australian economy is placed as a developed and modern market economy, with GDP running into more than one trillion dollars. It is also tagged as â€Å"one of the fastest growing advanced economies in the world† even in the times of recession and its aftermath. This can be viewed from the fact that â€Å"Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world according to nominal GDP (current prices) and the 17th largest according to GDP (PPP).† ( 2010). The sector which dominates the Australian economy contributing maximum to its GDP is the services sector, around 68% of the GDP. It is followed by agricultural and mining sectors. Thus, it can be said that â€Å"Australia possesses a well-diversified economy boosted by the strength of its services and resources industries.† ( 2010). Importantly, the economy grew optimally without slump from the last decade of the last century into the first decade of this 21st century. It grew in the positive figures in 2000’s until, break was placed in the form of global recession. â€Å"The Australian economy grew for 17 consecutive years before the global financial crisis.† ( 2011). So, in the aftermath of the financial recession, all the sectors had negative impacts, with these sectors particularly the mining sector losing sizable jobs. So, when the Australian economy witnessed a slump in the last two years as a result of global recession, after a continuous period of heightened growth, the government and the Reserve Bank of Australia swung into action, initiating key macro policies in the form of stimulus package and cutting of interest rates to historically low figures. â€Å"Rudd government introduced a fiscal stimulus package worth over US$50 billion to offset the effect of the slowing world economy, while the Reserve Bank of Australia cut interest rates to historic lows† ( 2011). When one focuses on th e last two years of the Australian economy, it coincided with the rule of Kevin Rudd government, as the regime was in power from 2007-2010. In addition, both the government and the RBI functioned in a coordinative manner regarding all the major decisions impacting the Australian economy. So, the role of the Australian government and RBI cannot be maximally bifurcated and

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Corporate business management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Corporate business management - Essay Example political, economic, and social implications that change will result to also needs to be identified and enumerated to ensure the success and development of the organization as well as the welfare of the general public. Moreover, it is the hospital’s management philosophy that seeks to integrate all organizational functions such as marketing, finance, design, engineering, production, customer service, and others to focus on meeting patients needs and organizational objectives (Hashmi, 2000). A considerable number of companies have developed into an essential part of the period of global competition, increasing development, improved business paradigms, and corporate reorganization. The continuing transformation from the traditional industrial framework with its hierarchical companies to a worldwide, knowledge-founded financial system and intelligent corporations necessitates human resource purposes to realign and relocate itself. The development of Lean Quality Management System of the hospital is one of the quality management approaches that address the business setting at present. It was developed to (1) save thousands of dollars each year by avoiding the waste associated with a paper quality system, (2) harness the creativity of employees while maintaining control of their projects, (3) perform tasks that are clearly assigned, defined, communicated and focused, (4) spend less time managing the quality system and more time improving the value stream, (5) reduce training costs by integrating procedures with training, (6) provide a management system that provides the who, what and when, and (7) provide the metrics to drive your organization to ever-higher levels of performance and success which works just as well for small as large companies (Lean Software Quality Management). Perhaps, the hospital may want to initiate a management system and strategy that could maintain the organization’s capability, strength and competitiveness. It is important that the

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Hot pursuit Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hot pursuit - Essay Example The main principle or premise that underlies this rule is that â€Å"an act is deemed to be committed not only where the physical movements occur but also where the consequences take effect.† (Williams, 1939). The main justification of the hot pursuit exception is reposed in the landmark case of Warden v. Hayden (387 U.S. 294 [1967]) where the warrantless entry of the police into the house of the suspect was deemed justified by the majority because the "exigencies of the situation made that course imperative" (p. 298). But a rule to follow, according to Worrall (2011), is that â€Å"the nature of the exigency defines the scope of the search.† This means that the exigency must be of so grave a nature and so compelling a reason before a search may be commenced without a warrant. This case of Warden also propounded other justifications. According to Justice Brennan, the imperatives of the Fourth Amendment â€Å"does not require police officers to delay in the course of an investigation if to do so would gravely danger their lives or the lives of others" (pp. 298-299). It was also reasonable for the police officers, according to the decision, to ensure that had control of all weapons which could be used against them or to effect an escape" (p. 299). Another important rule to consider is that there must be no time at all to get a warrant. If there is a reasonable period of time that the police officers can use to procure a warrant, then the most prudent course of action would simply to get the warrant and then apprehend the suspect or search his premises on the strength of the warrant of arrest or search warrant. In the case of Welsh v. Wisconsin (466 U.S. 740 [1984]) the Court held that the hot pursuit exception cannot be made to apply â€Å"because there was no immediate or continuous pursuit of the petitioner from the scene of [the] crime". The doctrine of hot pursuit is relevant in issues of maritime

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Embryo Gene Activation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Embryo Gene Activation - Essay Example Embryonic genes, which are active prior to the 4-cell stage, are small in number and they code for proteins used in controlling and stabilizing maternal mRNA and proteins. Parental proteins regulated at the post-translational glassy by adjusting the proteins phosphorylation form. Alternatively, these protein states created by the embryonic kinases can stimulate the activities of proteins and change their cell location. For embryo development, change and degradation of maternal mRNA proteins are crucial just before the embryo gene activation. This paper discusses embryo gene activation, DNA repair and the pathways involved in the processes (Lauritzen 240). During the 4-cell phase of embryo gene activation, remodeling of chromatin, which allows transcription of the embryo, and hence synthesizing the translation machinery. The genome of embryos becomes active and starts transcription of metabolic, apoptosis and cell cycle protein regulation (Khanna &Yosef 119). The proteins for maternal mRNAs continuously reduce in the early phases of the 4-cell phase. Signaling pathways for embryonic gene activation example is the hedgehog signaling. The signaling pathway that transfers information to embryonic cells helps for right development. Each part of the embryo can contain different concentrations of these signaling proteins. Not only in embryonic cell development, this kind of pathway has a bigger role in adults and malfunction can cause diseases like, basal cell carcinoma. This signaling pathway is a focus regulator in most animals’ growth (Song & Lee 48). In some other animals, lack of this pathway can lead to poor development of the brain, lungs, and the skeleton. Hedgehog signaling is crucial in regulating the maintenance and regeneration of most adult cells and tissues. Pharmaceutical companies have associated this pathway as a cause of cancer and developed drugs to cure the signaling causing diseases (Polin, William, & Steven 58). Breast cancer susceptibilit y gene 1 (BRCA1) and BRCA2 are genes which suppress tumor and the mutant phenotypes that predispose to both ovarian and breast cancers. These proteins are involved in most cellular processes and contribute DNA repair and regulation in response to the damage of DNA (Ensley 113). BRCA proteins protect the genome from damage by providing maintenance of the stability of chromosomes. The big number of cellular proteins, which interact with the BCRA, propels most functions of the BRCA proteins and their functions linked to different phosphorylation events. Reasons why these proteins cause both ovarian and breast cancer are unknown today (Knobil, Jimmy & Neill 69). These proteins are present in breast cells where they help repair the damaged DNA or destroy the cells in cases where the DNA is unrepaired body (Alpi, Pasierbek, Gartner & Loidl 16). Damaging the BRCA1 by any chance causes the damaged DNA not repaired and this may increase the chances of cancer. Most mammals have complex mechan isms to monitor damage of DNA and the required responses to maintain their integrity and repair. Some of the mechanisms for detection, repair, and cell cycle arrest to prevent damage from gametes or embryo cells (Gordon 670). The repair of the DNA in these newly formed embryos relies on the mRNA proteins from prior ovulation. These repair genes developed in the early stages of the animal development need to be enough to equip the embryo with the maternal products for the gene expression to start at the right