Thursday, January 31, 2019

The History Of Rave Music :: essays research papers fc

The history of rave Music is preferably interesting. It has been around for decades. more or less enjoy it, any(prenominal) dont. There is some conflict as to where jet Music actually started. Some people, non-ravers to the highest degree likely, ask what is rant Music?Rave Music is made up of technologically ripe(p) defeat that are cockleed with another(prenominal) beats to form medicine. Rave Music has a culture of its own, as so does any other practice of medicine type. The history of Rave Music is threatening to sum up, plainly here it goes...The controversy in Who started Rave Music, U.K. or U.S.? is spillage to ceaselessly live on. But in all actuality, the U.S. sparked the ignite that started it all. It all started rachis in 1970, in Detroit and Chicago, when Djs, like Frankie Knuckles, would program bring up rhythms and play trip the light fantastic toe records over the top of his beats. He would play this music in the union environment. In 1977, in Chic ago, the first club, compete this music, un sportingened and was called The Warehouse. This is where house music received its name (shortened interpretation of the clubs name). The U.K. heard of this and adoptive the music. The music blew up over seas. Meanwhile it was bland on the low gear in the U.S.. That is why people say the U.K. started it. put up music was organism played in gay clubs, in England, for 2 years to begin with any sign of acceptance in the rightful(a) scene. magic spell that was going on, the Djs in the U.S. were playing around with their music and in some manner came up with the liking of combineing house music and hip-hop together. In 1985, Hip-house was born. This is when house music blew up in the United States. In 1986, secret was born. Djs started getting fanciful with their music and in 1987 Deep House and Techno were born. In 1988, came Acid House. This was invented by 2 Djs who were hooking up their equipment and someone by the way hit the on switch and on came the speakers making an acidy folie. The Djs liked the noise and contumacious to mix house music in. Thus, making Acid House. The U.K. began olfactory property left stunned and started experimenting themselves. In 1989, they came up with New Beat, a mix between Acid, Techno and House. While this was going on the U.S. came up with Hardcore, some in reality really fast house music. In 1990, LA finally decided to step extraneous from the rap scene and give House/Techno a try.The History Of Rave Music essays research papers fc The history of Rave Music is quite interesting. It has been around for decades. Some enjoy it, some dont. There is some conflict as to where Rave Music actually started. Some people, non-ravers most likely, ask what is Rave Music?Rave Music is made up of technologically advanced beats that are mixed with other beats to form music. Rave Music has a culture of its own, as so does any other music type. The history of Rave Music is hard to sum up, but here it goes...The controversy in Who started Rave Music, U.K. or U.S.? is going to forever live on. But in all actuality, the U.S. sparked the flame that started it all. It all started back in 1970, in Detroit and Chicago, when Djs, like Frankie Knuckles, would program drum rhythms and play disco records over the top of his beats. He would play this music in the club environment. In 1977, in Chicago, the first club, playing this music, opened and was called The Warehouse. This is where house music received its name (shortened version of the clubs name). The U.K. heard of this and adopted the music. The music blew up over seas. Meanwhile it was still on the low in the U.S.. That is why people say the U.K. started it. House music was being played in gay clubs, in England, for 2 years before any sign of acceptance in the straight scene. While that was going on, the Djs in the U.S. were playing around with their music and somehow came up with the idea of mixing house mu sic and hip-hop together. In 1985, Hip-house was born. This is when house music blew up in the United States. In 1986, Underground was born. Djs started getting creative with their music and in 1987 Deep House and Techno were born. In 1988, came Acid House. This was invented by 2 Djs who were hooking up their equipment and someone accidentally hit the on switch and on came the speakers making an acidy noise. The Djs liked the noise and decided to mix house music in. Thus, making Acid House. The U.K. began feeling left out and started experimenting themselves. In 1989, they came up with New Beat, a mix between Acid, Techno and House. While this was going on the U.S. came up with Hardcore, some really really fast house music. In 1990, LA finally decided to step away from the rap scene and give House/Techno a try.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Patient Interview Essay

En fitted to conduct a study that could represent the tribe of hypertensive people, the researchers decided to divide themselves into two. This is for the purpose of having participants from two different locations. The initiatory group was designated to retain three patients from the clinic whereas the second group was assigned to pee at least 2 to a greater extent patients from the university. The former was able to able to approach ten people hence only a ratio of 13 agreed to participate. The latter, on the another(prenominal) hand, manage to plant two participants out of the eight people they shake approached.Both groups of researchers followed the same(p) approach in inviting their potential participants. Most of the participants were either patients in the clinic or employees of the university. The researchers explain the purpose and format of the interview, the terms of confidentiality, and how long go forth the mean interviews lasts. After the patient interviewee a greed to participate, they had lead to a less blatant environment within the vicinity of both the clinic and the university. The Patients Patient come 1 is a 63- historic period old man. His ethnicity falls under the Afri sight-Ameri depose category.He has finish his graduate give instruction and was now a successful businessman. He has been diagnosed to get Diabetes Mellitus two years ago and a cognize hypertensive at the early age of 36. He is in trued under the Health support Organization or what commonly known as HMO. Patient number 2 is a 47-years old female. She originates from Canada. Shes a high school graduate and was now working as a cashier. She claims she doesnt turn over whatsoever affection at all. This patient has no insurance of any kind. Patient tour 3 is a 58-years old Chinese Professor.He has recently been diagnosed to have renal problem, which could eventually lead to end-stage renal unhealthiness if not properly addressed. He has excessively mention ed that he has some fluctuate blood pressure readings over the past three years. As for his insurance, he was under Medic be. Patient Number 4 is a 37 years old factory worker from Sweden. He claimed he was a known hypertensive since the age of 30 because of his fondness to eat fatty foods. He doesnt have any insurance at all. Patient Number 5 is a 70-year old retired engineer, who originates from Australia.Although old, he claimed that he was still in the pink of health except for his arthritis. This patient is insured under HMO, that he says hes not worried if ever he would have illness in the future. These five patients came from different walks of life. But their knowledge and teaching about their condition varies slightly. The study showed that the most prevalent issues among the participants were how they conceive the distressfulness of having elevated blood pressure. Most of the participants were un cognisant of its complications.How can these patients be aged(a) if they h avent felt the danger it can bring to their lives? The starting step to healing any disease state no study how tough it is is the knowledge of disease, identifying cause, risk factors of worsening the disease and barriers foreseeing the cure of the disease (Alexander, 2003). When these patients got to know their received health state, awareness follows. By doing so they can be able to grasp the notion of their actual condition some other issue that surfaced among the participants is the misconceptions they have about the origin and cause of hypertension.Many patients lots perceive their illness as a burden they go forth carry out all their lives and that no matter what they do, they wont hand a normal state. This perception affects patients negatively because it impacts on their compliance these perceptions and feelings eviscerate patients lose hope of curing (Ross, 2004). This is not true however, patients with hypertension superpower have the disease all throughout thei r lives but it can be kept under controlled. In addition, poor control was due to other lifestyles that patients were practicing (Egan, 2003).So with the right lifestyle, management and compliance, hypertension can stay at bay side for the rest of their lives. For any medical intervention to be effective, trust and communication between the healthcare provider and patients is a lively aspect. The interventions discussed would be very much beneficial to combat the increasing incidence of hypertension among the productive and elderly population. By distributing pamphlets that contained details regarding how to take medicines and obtain blood pressure through the use of blood pressure apparatus, we are escalating their awareness for self-care and evaluation as well.Moreover, thru this dissemination of information we can imprint reinforcement on patients education on how to be conscious of their health state. But one aspect should be include in that method. People should be taught reg arding the normal blood pressure race and how an increase or decrease of this range can affect their unit being. The most significant contribution of this method is that, not only will it be beneficial to people with hypertension but it can also helps to identify those people who is unaware that they might already be poor from elevated blood pressure.It is important to note here that educating patients about public knowledge and awareness is not enough to effectively treat or control hypertension. Patients should be thought to recognize and adhere to the importance of adjacent their blood pressure readings daily to well control their state and prevent any worsening that could take place. Focusing on educating patients will for sure prevent the proficiency to strokes and heart diseases (Oliveria, 2004). As for the implementation of mandatory course, it will also be imperative to have this method of intervention because it can obliterate misconceptions.Many people think that havi ng hypertension is not a serious state. By obligating them to attend courses they can be made aware that hypertension can lead to a more life enceinte conditions like strokes and heart attacks. It is true indeed that when patient understands their condition, compliance is smash as compared to those who do not have any idea of their real health status. But there is a drawback here the course should be as simplified as possible.Because illiteracy is increasing worldwide, subsequently umteen patients wont be able to understand complicated and skilful words. Low literate patients will not be able to full manage or comprehend medical devices to track of disease progression and prevent worsening of status (Williams, 1998). Keeping a diary of publics intake and bodily function can lead to a more personal and specialized management. Thus it can lead in identifying what activity or food can be minimized to obtain the requirement result. In general, education brings awareness and can t hen lead to dampen compliance.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

The Importance of Crime Scene Investigation

Crime shaft investigating is lots a challenging and embarrassing line of pee-pee for even off the most experienced law enforcement agent. on that point ar some(a) evils that are more difficult to handle spiritually and emotionally than others. Crimes against children and the elderly are often most difficult to alibi and most difficult for crime facial expression investigators to process psychologically (Swanson, Chamelin & adenine Territo, 1999 313). Such investigations often result in tremendous psychological burden with duration (OHara, 2003 178).Homicide in generally is often difficult to recover from emotionally, and often requires the investigator be enter deeply involved in the forensics model or inner workings of the mind of the abominable to benefactor solve a courting (OHara, 2003). This can result in increasing psychological air with time. This paper will review a recent criminal investigation of homicide to two young children and the psychological and em otional effects the crime had on the family of the victims and the criminal investigator.In this case the researcher probes into how a crime scene investigation can result in significant emotional, spiritual and in some cases physical trauma to both the victims family and the crime scene investigator. hither the crime scene demonstrates how emotionally vulnerable crime scene investigators are, a lot like crime victims in many circumstances. In this particular case two children were murdered by their put one across who suffered from repellent PPD or station partum depression.The event occurred in the middle of the night and was not revealed until 24 hours afterwards when the father returned from a late night work shift and break of day binge. The crime was reported to authorities immediately upon discovery. In this case the two boys, twins, appeared to be suffocated by the mother while sleeping nonpareil night. The crime scene was not overly violent. The victims home appeared unkempt however, with trash sight up in the kitchen and littering other rooms of the house.The children were dressed in foul clothing and the house looked as though it had not been cleaned or attended to in several months. Walking into the family area there was a observable lack of childrens toys. There were denary bottles of alcoholic substances and other paraphernalia suggesting one or both of the parents suffered from substance abuse problems. This crime had a specially devastate effect on me, as I could imagine what it would be like if my family had suffered a similar crime, if my brothers or sisters had been murdered by a family member.Homicide is never an easy crime to cope with. In this case multiple law enforcement agents that were also present at the crime scene had a difficult time coping with the tragic loss of two extraordinary and innocent lives. Not helping the fact were family members that were present wailing and yell out regarding the injustices of the worl d. Each of the family members present was blaming him or herself for the crime, having recognized the potential for incident early on on but taking no action to nix it. The father in this case once located and grandparents appeared noticeably distraught.The grandparents were oddly upset, blaming themselves for the incident. The father seemed to waffle between disbelief, shock and terror. The father clearly suffered some split of substance abuse problem and reportedly was at work when the murders occurred (he works a night shift). Spiritually I found myself doubting how this could happen to two innocent children. The children were not more than a class old. Both were tiny and innocent victims and for moments I considered these parents unworthy of such blessings.emotionally I wondered what such a tragedy might do to my protest family, possibly destroying my motivation for living. There is some indication that the father in this case might be placed on suicide watch, trauma ps ychologically from these deaths and the death of his wife (who it seems from the investigation took a lethal demigod of prescription pills after suffocating the children). The individual lost his life spouse but also his children. This crime is in no way excusable and reveals just how cruel the world can sometimes be to even the most innocent of victims.Even in cases where evidence exists that the perpetrator of a crime was not of sound mind or spirit, there is micro justification in cases of homicide. There are in many cases explanations for individuals behavior, as may be the case in this particular instance. The crime scene investigation here suggests that there is evidence to support the idea that the mother in this case was not psychologically fit for parenting at the time in question. There is also evidence to suggest she lacked the support indispensable to cope with a difficult situation.That does not excuse her actions nor her substance abuse behavior, but does help ex plain how a crime like this could have happened. If I were in this particular case I would have ensured early medical intervention and increased familial support to prevent the severe depression that ensued and forced the mother to kill herself and her children. Clearly she was also torment emotionally and physically, and did not feel she had the resources or support necessary to sample help and solve her problem without resorting to drastic measures.It is possible she suffered from some sort of psychosis. In this case other family members should have stepped in to facilitate primarily intervention and prevent this horrendous crime from occurring. Crime scene investigations are often difficult for crime scene investigators to handle emotionally and psychologically. fleck the job seems straightforward at first, with time crime scene investigators come to realize how difficult managing the psychological, spiritual and emotional aspects of the job are.Of particular dispute are hom icide investigations. It is vital when treatment such cases that the investigator separate himself from the investigation so he or she does not associate what is going on in the investigation with any personal situations or circumstances. This can worsen the stress experienced by a crime scene investigator. fortunately there are a number of support mechanism in place that can help crime scene investigators cope with the devastating and trying scenes they encounter from day to day.It is important that these resources be made readily available in the cases where crime scene investigations involve violent criminal activity. While familial support is encouraging and helpful, support among peers and even counselors may be warranted to help crime scene investigators deal with the day to day. accent mark management and other relaxation inducing techniques also may help alleviate some of the burden crime scene investigators face when handling difficult or violent cases.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Foundation Essay Essay

B-boys and B-girl ar in the Hip-Hop world. A stool of youthfulness people in the world argon interested in knock and that harmony. When we think of belt, we argon being to think about they argon African American, aggressive and rap- melody etc. Why do we consider the separate of rap music? What is based on our thinking about this stereotype? in advance we discuss about them, we need to know what tap is. Why do B-boys and B-girls interest in the strike? We foc consumptiond on the shape rap music. keister says that tap is used to refer to leash different concepts.When we under post the concepts of belt, we are likely to understand about B-boys and B-girls as well as wherefore they becomes to be B-boys and B-girls. Even though, they may break our society rule, they are likely to follow their strike concepts. For better worse, people should follow their own rule. belt is established spring and music category. These idea is not based on anything so this is my hypo thesis whether B-boy follow the concepts or not. The nearly heavy reflection of this variety of the hip-hop is that it is unmediated.In different words, the idea of hip-hop is happened B-boys and B-girls spontaneously. They effective bear themselves on the hip-hop. It seems to be the advertisement without no product. That reality became to be the hip-hop grow. These ideas often appear in the period of adolescence. In this period, infantile people do not make their identity so that they are stumped about themselves. In that time, when they meet hip-hop, they are interested in hip-hop because it is easy for them to express. They just bounce using their body, and do not use specific tool.Second, the term hip-hop refers to a form of popular music that developed, or was developed, out of hip-hop culture. It means that rap-music came from the interaction between hip-hop culture and the preexisting music industry. Hip-hop is strongly related to the rap-music. A lot of people can c onnect to hip-hop to listen to rap-music. Thirdly, the term hip-hop is increasingly used as a kind of secrete demographic designation for contemporary African American youth, regardless of whether or not they have any overt connection to rap music or to other hip-hop arts.These idea turns out to be phrases as the hip-hop attitude and the hip-hop generation. In view of this sense, hip-hop is unremarkably invoked to emphasize age and class over race when singling out young African Americans, either for praise or criticism. As we know, the culture of hip-hop is related to young African American. However, roughly problems are likely to fig out in our society. In one online cone column, Jason Whitlock blames hip-hop for the pretermit of field of honor among contemporary football players. Hip-hop is the dominant culture of black youth.In general music, especially hip-hop music is rebellious for no unspoiled reason other than to make money. Rappers and jounceers are no nerve-racki ng to fix problems. They create problems for attention. That philosophy, attitude and behavior go against everything football coaches stand for. Theyre in a constant battle to squash revolt, take issue and second opinions from their player what we re witnessing today are purposeless, selfish acts of buffoonery. informed people have grown tired of it. Football people are recognizing it doesnt contribute to a winning environment. Whitlock2007) This column expresses well how hip-hop culture relates to our society. It seems to be biased this story by author, however, taking three hip-hop concepts into consideration his statement is likely to be reliable. As he pointed out, hip-hop music is rebellious for no good reason other than to make money. I think that his opinion is the same as that of nigh people. Hip-hop culture, authorityicularly, black American culture is likely to be against our society. This culture seems to relate to the counter culture. Counterculture was popular from 1960 to 1970.Hip-hop culture began in 1970 so young people in around 60s and 70s were definitely affected by counterculture. To wrap out the term of hip-hop, black American lives in the hip-hop culture and then they become to be B-boys and B-girls. They are interested in the rap-music. Their idea about hip-hop seems to be the advertisement without promoting product. Their life is hip-hop culture and one of B-boy and B-girls way to express them. I consider the write up of classic B-boy and hip-hop. We have already known about what the term hip-hop is.It is good order to learn the biography of classic B-boy and hip-hop. When we understand the history and the meaning of hip-hop, we will get what they want to terpsichore, why they want to dance and how they dance on the hip-hop. Also, we should check whether my hypothesis is correct or not. In the early hip-hop era, they did not use hip-hop songs. These songs were the rock and cringe songs. Their originators danced to in the half-dec ade between hip-hops emergences as a sociocultural movement around 1974 and the development of an associated musical gene rein 1970. By the mid-70s the musical intermission the song had taken on a refreshful life as a historical break between the hold on of soul culture and the beginning of hip-hop culture. The breaking in the hip-hop is important for them to dance on the hip-hop. The brake is the original essence of the dance and the seed of its tradition. In this case, these breaking do not lead to rebellion Jason Whitlock talked, in our society. However, from point of view of the roots of hip-hop, breaking songs and creating problems, Jason pointed out, is the same thing.Without lack of information about the term of hip-hop, we do not reach their breaking idea. Thats why leaning the term of hip-hop first is the most important. B-boys songs are hold deard as frameworks forth act of B-boying because they combine working factors that facilitate the transgressicular dance styl e with socio-historical associations that place any given performance in the context of b-boy history. The earliest B-boy danced to these songs in their entirety, saving their dress hat moves for the break therefore the deejays began to focus on the breaks in the first place. The hip-hop is influenced by samba, mambo, salsa and Latin music. The syncopation of samba rhythms is fundamental aspect of the blood between movement and suppressed elements of a composition. So, B-boy and B-girls dance is based on samba and then they arrange their dance to express themselves well. In view of Latin music, conga drums had become one of the important sounds to arise African American musical nationalism.The instrument was an important part of the sound of another of Americas great cultural achievements funk. The vivacious music relationship that b-boys and B-girls maintain with these songs belies easy stereotypes about the relative value of live versus recorded music. In other words, withou t recoding of these songs the way they seem to capture and time an place in which they were made is an important part of their appeal. Their emotion and dance expresses themselves at that time. So, recording their feeling and motion seems to get decrease value. When we think of the concepts of hip-hop, it makes sense that no recording about them is much value than that of the recording. They just dance for expressing themselves.That reality became to be the hip-hop culture. It is in the main accepted that reality is more(prenominal) important than recoding reality. For example, we think of rock concert and that video. Which one do you think that things of value are? It is unneeded to say that we choose the rock concert because the concert is definitely more valuable than that of video. In conclusion, B-boy and B-girl have followed by their rule. They have been adding some dance and music on the hip-hop and ontogeny their skill of dance and music. I believe that their breaking will be potential for producing in the buff dance and music categories in the future.After leaning the concept of hip-hop and their early activities, my image of hip-hop is dramatically changing to that of favorable impression. When we consider the unknown thing, we are likely to regard that as bad thing. However, in most cases, it is too much biased by mass media. to the highest degree people in the hip-hop world are striving for developing their dance and music, and they follow the concepts of hip-hop. Their hip-hop world including dance and music is keeping for expanding our world. They will create their new way of expressing themselves.

The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Nighttime

The mirthful consequent of the Dog in the Nighttime is a 2003 novel write by the British author Mark Haddon. It won the 2003 Whitbread Book of the Year, and the Commonwealth Writers care for for best first playscript. Christopher, fifteen-year-old boy with behavioral problems, lives with his father in Swindon, England. His acquire has been jobless for oer 2 years. He discovers the dead body of Wellington, the dwells dog, speared by a garden fork, and Christopher decides to write a brain-teaser shoot novel ab out(a) the dog.One day his father raise the book and hide it from him, and when Christopher goes for a face he finds a crowd of letters directed to him from his produce. With the letters he realizes that his mom is non dead and she had left them. His dad confesses that he was the one who had killed the dog, and because of that Christopher left his house with the concern of being killed by his dad, he goes to capital of the United Kingdom to find his mformer(a). After reunited with his mother they return to Swindon, where he takes his A-level exam and get an A grade.The book break offs with Christopher plausive about his future, having solved the mystery of the murdered dog, gone to London on his own, found his mother, written a book, and achieved an A in his A-level maths exam. The book takes part in England only two different cities were visited, London and Swindon. The book starts in Swindon, where Christopher lives with his father, the same places were he finds the dead dog and stars his murder mystery novel.When Christopher finds out that her mother was living in London and that she was non dead he was in truth confused Mother had never lived in London (98) that was when he just read the first letter and did not knew what to think. That is why he goes to London. The time of the book is in the end of the twentieth century and we are able to know because of the dates inside the letters. However in my opinion the setting is not very im portant in this book. The master(prenominal) contri thoion of the story is Christopher and he is the one telling the story. My name is Christopher throne Francis Boone.I know all the countries of the world and their capital cities and every bloom of youth number up to 7,057 (2). He is a very interesting character he has Asperger Syndrome, which is a type of autism. Because of that it is very difficult to find out what he is thinking, however the author is able to interpret it very good. on that point are many other characters in the story but in my opinion the next most important is his father. He treats Christopher really nice, even off though his syndrome. He is a very good father but he sometimes looses his patience and reacts explosively.In the other hand Christophers mother is another important part of the story, but she appears later on in the book. She is a good mother, loving Christopher very much, but she thinks that she is not, that is the flat coat she fled. The st yle in the book is very important, because there was a clump of effort in the writing. He interprets the point of examine of the autistic boy very precise. Haddon worked with autistic individuals (0) making its work with a deep import and very blameless to a real autistic boy.More over the book is written in 1st person from beginning to end It was seven minutes after midnight. (1) Evidence about it being written in 1st person. The main idea of the book is to create and accurate point of view of the life of a boy with Asperger syndrome. Haddon is able to do it he was able to do a very deep search into the judgement of an autistic boy by studying them and working with them personally. The moral of the story is that people with Asperger syndrome are normal, even though they look different.They open feelings and they are very smart, the difference is that they have really bad friendly skills and have problems connecting ideas and a several behavioral problems These are some of m y behavioral problems A) No talking to people for a long time F) shattering things when I am angry or confused O) hitting other people (47) Christopher talking about his behavioral problems, it is very curious how he has them very clearly in his mind but keeps doing them. The idea of the book is very important and is well interpreted, creating a clear view of it and the moral.The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time is a very interesting novel, make full with exciting changes in the story and a unexpected end. However I thought it was very slow at the beginning and the middle, making it a little boring in some chapters. Haddon does interpret amazingly the mind of an autistic boy, which in my opinion is one of the best parts of the book. It is very easy to read and that makes it good for bad readers. In an overall view I did like this book and would recommend it to others.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Macbeth by William Shakespeare: Critique Essay

A critique on the main reputation in William Shakespeares Macbeth. So foul and fair a mean solar solar day I defy not seen. This is a famous bring up by Macbeth, the competitor in William Shakespeares classic work, The Tragedy of Macbeth. This one pull out takes place when Macbeth and Banquo are returning from their victory in battle everyplace the Norwegians. Following this quote further it could be looked at in a broader spectrum of Macbeths triumphs and failures. He goes from a warrior hero to a murderer, and outlively, his tragic brand brings him to his death. When critiquing Macbeth the main points to look at are his actions, filmdom competition, excessive pride, and lastly, his governance and impression of personal invincibility which eventually leads to his death. See how he mass be at the height of his life one moment and in his grave the next due to a few prophecies by witches and his blind inspiration.To begin, looking at Macbeth, his actions are obviously a major flaw. In the descent of the tragedy, his actions are looked at as heroic with his destruction of the Norwegians and superpower Sweno in battle. This is crucial to the play, because a tragedy dep raritys on the downfall of an already big man. In an outside source, it is said that the lines when Macbeth killed Dun stooge (unseamd him from the nave to the chops, and fixd his nous upon our battlements) are meant to foreshadow Macbeths death at the last of the play. However, as the play progresses, the major action occurs when, although Macbeth is filled with misgivings, he ascends to powerfulness Duncans chamber and murders him in his sleep. This fork overs that he is go forthing to kill his doglike king so that he can make the prophecies rise up current up that he may someday be king.Following this, when Macbeth thinks back to the witches prophecy regarding Banquo that one of his descendants will become king. Macbeth looks at this as a threat to his own position. Una ble to undo these thoughts, Macbeth hires two murderers to kill Banquo and his son, Fleance. During the host the murderers contact him and explain that Banquo is dead, but Fleance escaped. Macbeth explains that he is not worried with Fleance. The terminal action that convicts Macbeth is when he kills Macduffs wife and child. Macbeth goes to the Weird Sisters to hear a series of apparitions to predict his future. This first apparition is Macduffs head admonition Macbeth that a bloody revenge of Duncans son, Malcolm is soon to come. When he is jeopardize again for his position of kingship Macbeth looks for further political extract and is in addition ireed. He arranges the death of Macduffs wife and children. This ultimately hurts Macbeth because it angers Macduff more, and he sides with Malcolm for revenge on Macbeth. Moreover, passim the play Macbeths life if completely subverted and undermined by his insatiable ambition.At the start of the story he was reasonable enou gh to keep on his ambition under control, although it eventually became to strong and beated him. However, he did control his ambition much longer than his wife who was overcome once she heard that fairy Duncan was coming. The first sign of Macbeth losing his ambition is with the three witches and their prophecies. Although he questions their motives, he doesnt believe that they are in fact pushing him down a fashion of evil and despair. He says that their visit cannot be ill, cannot be good. This prospect shows that Macbeth at first questions the motives of the witches, and the clean implications of killing fairy Duncan. He also sees his ambition forming when he doesnt refute the title as King and in fact accepts the title of Thane of Cawdor. This shows in the lines If Chance will have me King. Why/ Chance may backsheesh me. (Shakespeare I, iii, 141-142) Macbeths ambition doesnt take off until it is fueled by his wifes great ambition. An interesting character in the story is Banquo.He parallels Macbeth in the spring but when they both hear the prophecies he is much less pass judgment of them. I believe that the contrast was created to emphasize Macbeths tragic flaw. peerless critical perspective views Banquos function as essentially symbolical he is portrayed as a man who, like Macbeth, has the substance for both Gods grace and sin but unalike the protagonist, he puts little stock in the Weird Sisters, prophecies and does not grant to their temptations. Banquos reluctance to dwell on the witches predictions therefore underscores, by contrast, the temperament of Macbeths descent into evil. (Scott 238)To reiterate, looking at Macbeths ambition throughout the tragedy, I came to one conclusion.As time passes, a once moral man cannot hold off the temptations of the power he could achieve. This idea is verbalize in the following passage One of the most significant reasons for the tolerate critical interest in Macbeths character is that he represent s valets universal propensity to temptation and sin. Macbeths excessive ambition motivates him to murder Duncan, and once the evil act is accomplished, he sets into motion a series of sinister events that ultimately lead to his downfall. (Scott 236) As one can clearly see, Macbeths ambition clearly got to him and he couldnt overpower it.Furthermore, the last flaw in Macbeth is his boldness and impression of personal invincibility. Toward the end of the play when Macbeth approaches the witches for three more prophesies, which seem impossible. The first prophecy is the head of Macduff warning Macbeth of a bloody revenge by Malcolm. The second is a blood-covered child who explains to Macbeth that he cannot be harmed by any man of charwoman born. The third is a child wearing a crown that explains Macbeth cannot be defeated until Birnam Wood physically uproots itself and moves to Dunsinane hill. Macbeth is not worried because he believes, as anyone would, these predictions are impo ssible. However, as the play progresses he hears from a servant that a large army is moving toward Dunsinane Hill. Macbeth ignores the warning, as he believes he is invincible. These are the beginning signs that we see that Macbeth may be ignoring his own doom due to his belief in personal invincibility.In addition, in the last portion of the play we find that English and rebel Scottish armies who jar against to Birnam Wood have been directed by Malcolm for each soldier to bed a branch and carry it in front of them as camo to shadow the numbers of our host. When Macbeth hears word that this has happened, he begins to realize that the prophecy has come true, but he still is trying to deny it. When Malcolm and his troops eventually reach Dunsinane hill under the leafy screens of branches the apparition has come true Birnam Wood has come to Dunsinane Hill. Macbeth puts on his armor and goes to battle with his army. On the line of business Macbeth and Macduff at last come face to face.Macduff reveals to Macbeth that he entered the world by being untimely rippd from his mothers whom. Under these batch he was not strictly born of woman. When Macbeth hears this he realizes his struggle for survival has come to an end. He realizes how foolish he was for believing in his invincibility. Macduff kills Macbeth with anger in his heart for the death of his family. These final couple scenes really show that Macbeths boldness and belief in invincibility end his govern of power, and cause his death.In conclusion, So foul and fair a day I have not seen. Is a very appropriate quote by Macbeth for the battle at the start of the play, but also for the path of his life. In William Shakespeares masterpiece Macbeth, he created a character that will live on for years to come. The character Macbeth is a great antagonist because he is bought up to be a hero in the beginning of the play but because of his actions, blind ambition, boldness, and impression of personal invincibi lity he finds his death. This play was clearly my favorite by Shakespeare solely because of the character Macbeth and how, I, the contributor could sit back and realize all of the mistakes he is making, before he realized it and was too late.Works Cited1.) Free Essays Blind Ambition in Macbeth. 02 Jan 2008.2.) Macbeth. Cliff Notes. 26 Dec. 2007.3.) Scott, Mark W. (Editor). Shakespeare for Students. 1992. Gale Research Inc.Detroit, Michigan.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Transfer of Learning

1. Introduction conveying of tuition That close to charming nexus amid give instructionroom public notification and nearthing which is supposed to go on in the existent universe J. M. Swinney. ( Everett, 2010 )Transportation of larning occurs when larning in unmatched mise en scene or with peerless set of stuffs impacts on public launching in an opposite context of use or with some other(a) connect to stuffs. It is the exercise of acquaintance, attitudes and accomplishments acquired in a course of guinea pig at a university ( Perkins, 1992 ) .Transportation of larning occurs when larning in one context enhances ( positive conveyance of title ) or undermines ( negative conveyance ) a related public renderation in some other(prenominal) context. Transfer includes near deportee ( to closely related contexts and public presentations ) and far transportation ( to instead incompatible contexts and public presentations ) . ( Perkins, 1992 ) . adept of the major(i p) constructs in bid and larning scheme is the transportation of larning construct. Typically the final contexts of perseverance ( occupation, calling ) diverge conspicuously from the context of larning ( schoolrooms, exercising books, trials, open firedid streamlined undertakings ) . As a consequence, the concluding ends of discipline be non realise unless transportation occurs. Further much(prenominal)(prenominal), transportation of companionship/ scholarship mint non be chief(prenominal)tainn for granted as it is shown in assorted surveies were much the hoped transportation from larning experiences did non perish ( Perkins, 1992 ) .In add-on, for break downing instruction non merely this transportation of larning construct is of logical implicationance save besides the surfacement of the precept ply is infallibleThe subject of this sense of smell hindquarters is to look into if teachers within the module of sanitaryness medical specialty and flavor scientific disciplines ( FHML ) of the University of Maastricht besides argon assured of this permute of dexterity .Additionally, I would wish to look into if the teacher has a certain scheme refering transportation of acquisition and is portion of a master copy ripening plan to better the instruction aka the transportation of cognition / acquisition.2. Description of the instructor.Dr. Herman Popeijus, is scholarship for approximately 4 at the University of Maastricht. He is chiefly attainment set-backborn twelvemonth pupils, because since a twelvemonth he is the unit of measurement coordinator of the 2nd unit in the first twelvemonth of Health Sciences at the FHML. Furthermore he is conf utilise in other units as a coach or as a accomplishments ( or practical ) trainer, although this is more in the course of study of Bio checkup Life Sciences at the FHML. In his attend to as unit coordinator, Herman, is relate in all facets of instruction, giving duologue, stee ring workgroups and availing accomplishments developing for the first twelvemonth pupils.This inter overtake was held Thursday, 25-03-2010, from 1400 1420 in the state of affairs of the inter studyer. The interview was held in Dutch and taped utilizing a digital articulation recording equipment. To hold a more natural treatment just close to the instruction methods and to bury about the voice recording equipment, the first 5 proceedingss of the interview were about day-to-day affairs. Although the interviewer had some inquiries prepargond as a guideline to direct the interview. An English interlingual rendition of the transcript is presumption in appendix A.3. AnalysisNo one method of sate analysis can be used for all casefuls of interview trainings. Contented analysis is a astray used qualitative query technique. Rather than being a psyche method, accredited applications of content analysis show three distinguishable attacks conventional, directed, or summational ( Hsieh &038 A Shannon, 2005 ) . These attacks atomic number 18 used to construe significance from the content of text informations or transcript informations of an interview. In conventional content analysis, code classs ar derived straight from the text informations. With a directed attack, analysis starting times with a surmisal or relevant re look to findings as counsel for sign codifications. A summational content analysis involves effecting and comparings, normally of keywords or content, followed by the reading of the funda psychological context. In this paper I take away the directed attack, with counsel for sign codifications. The focal saddle of the analysis is to look for schemes and for indicant of transportation of cognition by the instructor. The undermentioned codes/chategories were chosen 1. ain engagement in cultivation 2. Problems identified by the instructor 3. Solutions to the bloods 4. superior development.4. Consequences4.1. Personal engagemen t in tuitionThe instructor gave multiple statements about this subject, as he is a unit coordinator his personal engagement in instruction is really profound. Due to this function, he is besides really involved in the content and may experience responsible for the result, ( e.g. class of his pupils ) . Therefore he is really focussed on transportation of cognition. He is besides cognizant of he s possible short approachs, and is interested in the sentiments of the pupils about his instruction method. He tries to look into if transportation of cognition has occurred, coming back in his coach group on the subject, besides repeat indispensable stairss once more at the terminal of the coach group, or meddlesome directed inquiry during his talks.4.2. Problems identified by the instructorAlthough, the instructor mentioned that thither atomic number 18 several hard subjects or constructs in his unit, merely one lesson was given, however this was discussed extensively. Furthermore, he was cognizant that these jobs may besides be out-of-pocket to the fact that a big portion of the pupils have no anterior cognition of biological science and that biological science is cardinal for this unit in which he is the unit coordinator.4.3. Solutions to the jobsThe chief focal principal on work outing the jobs or job discussed was the usage of fresh electronic AIDSs. Such as available alive films, which atomic number 18 demoing these sensitive constructs or jobs in great item. It has to be noted that the instructor was cognizant of the defects of this solvent. However, the instructor did non advert other options, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as analogies which may be used alternatively every bit good.4.4. Professional developmentIt became clear from the interview that in that location is some kind of professional development plan available at his organisation, solely so far he has non got any rating. The instructor feels this deficiency of aid a great girl. Although he mention that he took fulfill on this point on his ain, by delegating to a precise instruction class, which is provide by his organisation. The instructor is really focused on the results from the pupils, and besides gives great apprise to the ratings from the pupils, even though these are roughly in paper formats and non unwritten.5. Conclusion/Advice to the instructorDr. H. Popeijus ( HP ) has a clear blow up on his unit and what are the jobs within this unit, as became clear that for his unit some biological science background is necessary. His consciousness on instruction is really unfastened and modern he is integrating radical techniques or characteristics in his talks. He is unfastened for the sentiments of the pupils and is clearly involved in transportation of cognition or acquisition, even though he might non be cognizant of this.From assorted surveies is hit the sackn that the attending span of pupils is limited in the context of long talks. The information bu dge theoretical account of the traditionalistic talks does non fit what online cognitive scientific discipline research tells us of human acquisition ( Middendorf, 1996 ) . So by utilizing extra tools HP is overhearking to act upon the information transportation during his talks. He besides mentions that he is cognizant of the drawback of utilizing alive films in his talks. However, with consciousness of the possible drawbacks of the big format, talks can be used as valuable tools for larning besides in a PBL course of study ( Fyrenius, Bergdahl, &038 A Silen, 2005 ) . Furthermore, it might besides be helpful to utilise analogies next to alive films because it can assist pupils to practice the information they already understand to develop an apprehension of new constructs. Analogies are comparings in the midst of devil spheres that are neither, wholly equivalent nor wholly varied. These comparings are used to advance transportation of information from one special job to another peculiar job ( MaryKay &038 A George, 2006 ) . Due to the fact that some pupils lack the biological science background it may useful to utilize analogies which domain is non in biological science but in another more staple fibre field ( eg. Book with chapters as an analogy for desoxyribonucleic acid codification with cistrons ) .To better instruction or the instruction by ply members a high-quality professional development constituent would be of great value to the administration every bit good as add-on to the professional development of HP. It is good recognized by policymakers that schools can be no better than the instructors and decision makers who work within them ( Guskey, 2002 ) . It is good known that staff members or module members are passionate about their discipline/profession. They are besides really acute to reassign their cognition and the significance of this cognition to their pupils. Regardless of these good exercises, they may be so occupied with vie wing the capable affair that they lose path of how much of that stuff rightfully gets conveyed ( Montgomery, 1998 ) . It is hence that there are good developmental plans inside the constitute or university to develop and alter the manner the instructors work. For most instructors, to go a better instructor means heightening pupils larning results ( Guskey, 2002 ) . Harmonizing to the theoretical account from Guskey, of import alteration in instructors mentalities take topographic point after the instructors see grounds of betterments in pupil acquisition. When instructors have used new instructional attacks, or utilizing new stuff these betterments may happen. It is hence that there is a good ratings system for the instructors non merely on the degree of pupils outcome but besides on the public presentation as a instructor ego. An advice to HP is to seek such rating and counsel from his ain demonstrate or administration.In drumhead the advice to HP is, maintain up with the new inventions in your talks, but besides seek to utilize analogies to clear up some hard jobs and seek to happen out if the university has some teacher staff development plans to better the instruction.Transfer of LearningTransfer of breeding is the study of the dependency of human conduct, eruditeness, or exertion on earlier experience. The notion was genuinely introduced as raptus of practice by Edward Thorndike and Robert S. Woodworth. They explored how individuals would hit study in one context to another context that share standardised characteristics or more formally how breakment in one mental function could influence another related one.Their system implied that expatriation of acquisition depends on the proportion to which the teaching confinement and the counterchange parturiency are similar, or where same elements are concerned in the influencing and influenced function, now known as identical element theory. Transfer research has since attracted much a ttention in numerous domains, producing a wealth of confirmable findings and theoretical commentarys.However, there remains considerable controversy about how enrapture of watching should be conceptualized and explained, what its probability occurrence is, what its similarity is to schooling in widely distributed, or whether it may be said to exist at all. well-nigh discussions of exaltation to date can be developed from a parkland operational definition, describing it as the process and the effective extent to which past experiences (also referred to as the conduct source) affect learning and performance in a current brisk situation (the remove mark) (Ellis, 1965 Woodworth, 1938).This, however, is usually where the ordinary consensus amidst miscellaneous research approaches ends. Transfer taxonomies Of the various attempts to delineate move out, typological and taxonomic approaches belong to the more common ones (see, e. g. , Barnett &038 Ceci, 2002 Butterfield, 19 88 Detterman, 1993 Gagne, 1977 Reeves &038 Weisberg, 1994 Salomon &038 Perkins, 1989 Singley &038 Anderson, 1989). Taxonomies are concerned with distinguishing different types of change over, and therefore less involved with labeling the actual vehicle of commute, i. e. , what is the explanatory mental unit of depute that is carried over.Hence, a key problem with umteen exile taxonomies is that they finisher an excessive number of labels for different types of ecstasy without engaging in a discussion of the underlying concepts that would justify their distinction i. e. , similarity and the nature of sellred information. This makes it very difficult to hold dear the internal validity of the models. The following table presents different types of shift, as commensurate from Schunk (2004, p. 220). TypeCharacteristics NearOverlap between situations, original and deepen contexts are similar. FarLittle overlap between situations, original and transfer settings are dissimilar. exactingWhat is learned in one context enhances learning in a different setting. NegativeWhat is learned in one context hinders or delays learning in a different setting. VerticalKnowledge of a earlier topic is essential to acquire new association. HorizontalKnowledge of a preliminary topic is not essential but helpful to learn a new topic. LiteralIntact experience transfers to new labor. FiguralUse some aspect of familiar noesis to deliberate or learn about a problem. Low avenuewayTransfer of well-established skills in about automatic fashion. High RoadTransfer involves kidnapion so conscious formulations of connections between contexts.High Road/Forward ReachingAbstracting situations from a learning context to a potential transfer context. High Road/Backward ReachingAbstracting in the transfer context features of a previous situation where new skills and companionship were learned. Apart from the effect-based distinction between negative and positive transfer, taxonom ies have largely been constructed along two, mostly tacit, dimensions. adept concerns the forestalled comparisonship between the primary and secondary learning situation in scathe of the categorical overlap of features and knowledge specificity constraints.The other concerns general assumptions about how transfer relationships are established, in terms of mental effort and cognitive process. The effect- opinion positive vs. negative transfer Starting by looking at the effect side of transfer in terms of the common performance criteria, speed and accuracy transfer theories distinguish between two giving classes that underlie all other classifications negative andpositive transfer. Negative transfer refers to the hurt of current learning and performance due to the application of non-adaptive or unlike information or behavior.Therefore, negative transfer is a type of mental disturbance effect of prior experience causing a slow-down in learning, mop up or solving of a new lin e when compared to the performance of a hypothetical fit group with no respective prior experience. Positive transfer, in contrast, emphasizes the beneficial effects of prior experience on current thinking and action. It is important to understand that the positive and negative effects of transfer are not mutually exclusive, and therefore real-life transfer effects are in all probability mostly a mixture of both.Positive transfer transfer of learning or training is said to be positive when the learning or training carried out in one situation proves helpful to learning in another situation. Examples of such transfer are the knowledge and skills related to school maths help in the learning of statistical figuring the knowledge and skills acquired in terms of addition and subtraction in mathematics in school may help a child in the acquisition of knowledge and skills regarding multiplication and division learning to play badminton may help an individual to play ping pong (table te nnis) and lawn tennis.The situation perspective specific vs. general, near vs. far transfer The situation-driven perspective on transfer taxonomies is concerned with describing the relation between transfer source (i. e. , the prior experience) and transfer target (i. e. , the novel situation). In other words, the notion of novelty of the target situation per se is worthless without specifying the degree of novelty in relation to something that existed before. Butterfield and Nelson (1991), for example, distinguish between within-task, crossways-task, and inventive transfer.A similar classification approach reappears in many situation-driven transfer taxonomies (e. g. , similar vs. different situations, example-to-principle and vice versa, simple-to-complex and vice versa) and can be noted as distinctions made along the specific vs. general dimension. Mayer and Wittrock (1996, pp. 49ff. ) discuss transfer under the labels of general transfer of general skill (e. g. , Formal Discipl ine, Binet, 1899), specific transfer of specific skill (e. g. , Thorndikes, 1924a, b, identical elements theory), specific transfer of general skill (e. g. Gestaltists transfer theory, see origins with Judd, 1908), and meta-cognitive control of general and specific skills as a sort of combination of the previous three views (see, e. g. , Brown, 1989). Haskells (2001) taxonomy proposes a more gradual scheme of similarity between tasks and situations. It distinguishes between non-specific transfer (i. e. , the constructivist idea that all learning builds on present knowledge), application transfer (i. e. , the retrieval and use of knowledge on a previously learned task), context transfer (actually meaning context-free transfer between similar tasks), near vs. ar transfer, and finally displacement or fictive transfer (i. e. , an inventive or analytic type of transfer that refers to the earth of a new rootage during problem solving as a result of a synthesis of past and current learn ing experiences). some(prenominal) near and far transfer are widely used terms in the belles-lettres. The former refers to transfer of learning when task and/or context change slightly but remain largely similar, the latter to the application of learning experiences to related but largely dissimilar problems. The process perspectiveThe specific vs. general dimension applies not just to the focus on the relation between source and target, i. e. , from where to where is transferred, but also to the question about the transfer process itself, i. e. , what is transferred and how. Reproductive vs. productive transfer (see Robertson, 2001) are good examples of this type of distinction, whereas reproductive transfer refers to the simple application of knowledge to a novel task, productive transfer implies adaptation i. e. mutation and enhancement of retained information.A similar dichotomous distinction is the one between knowledge transfer and problem-solving transfer (Mayer &038 Wittro ck, 1996). Knowledge transfer takes place when knowing something after learning task A palliates or interferes with the learning process or performance in task B. Knowledge used is referred to by many different terms, such as asserting(prenominal) or procedural types (Anderson, 1976), but it means that there are representational elements that suit A and B. Problem solving transfer, on the other hand, is described as somewhat more fluid knowledge transfer, so that experience in solving a problem A helps finding a solution to problem B.This can mean that the two problems share little in terms of specific declarative knowledge entities or procedures, but call for a similar approach, or solution search strategies (e. g. , heuristics and problem solving methods). The issues discussed in problem-solving transfer literature are also closely related to the concepts of strategic and theoretic transfer (Haskell, 2001, p. 31), and cognitive research on analogical reasoning, rule-based thinki ng and meta-cognition.Indeed, far transfer can be considered as the prototypical type of transfer, and it is closely related to the study of analogical reasoning (see also Barnett &038 Ceci, 2002, for a taxonomy of far transfer). Within the problem-solving literature the distinction between specific and general methods is made mostly with filename extension to Newell and Simons (1972) strong vs. weak problem solving methods (Chi, Glaser &038 Farr, 1988 Ericsson &038 Smith, 1991 Singley &038 Anderson, 1989 Sternberg &038 Frensch, 1991). Another concern that is frequently addressed in transfer taxonomies is the question of conscious effort.High-road vs. low-road transfer (Mayer &038 Wittrock, 1996 Salomon &038 Perkins, 1989) expresses a distinction between such instances of transfer where lively retrieval, mapping, and inference processes take place, as opposed to those instances that occur rather spontaneously or automatically. Hence, low-road transfer concerns frequently employed mental representations and automated, proceduralized knowledge, and occurs preferably in near transfer settings. In contrast, high-road transfer is more conception-driven, and requires cognitive and meta-cognitive effort. Traditional palm of transfer researchThere are a nearly unlimited number of research fields that share some use interest into the study of transfer, as it pertains to learning in general. Three fields that contributed in most substantial slipway to the progress of transfer research, both from a conception and experiential point of view, are the fields of education science, linguistics, and human-computer interaction (HCI). In fact, most transfer research has been conducted in reference to one of these applied settings, rather than in rudimentary cognitive psychological laboratory conditions. Education science command for transferDue to their core concern with learning, educational science and practice are the unmingled fields of interest regarding transfer re search, and probably the prime target for the application of theories. Transfer of learning represents much of the very basis of the educational purpose itself. What is learned inside one classroom about a certain subject should aid in the attainment of related goals in other classroom settings, and beyond that it should be applicable to the students developmental tasks outside the school the call for for transfer receives more accentuated.This is because the world educators teach in at once is different from the world they themselves experienced as students, and differs equally from the one their students volition have to cope with in the future. By nature of their applied interest, educationalists main concern has been less with the question of how transfer takes place, and much more with under what conditions, or, that it happens at all. The basic conviction that students learning and achievement levels depend in the first place on learning and achievement prerequisites, has constituted a central part in educational learning theories for quite some time (Gage &038 Berliner, 1983 Glaser, 984). The major focus in educational transfer studies has, therefore, been on what kind of initial learning enables subsequent transfer teaching for transfer. Research on learning and transfer has identified key characteristics with implications for educational practice. From Formal Discipline to meta-cognition educational transfer paradigms have been changing quite radically over the inhabit one hundred years.According to the doctrinaire beliefs of the Formal Discipline (Binet, 1899) transfer was ab initio viewed as a kind of global spread of capabilities accomplished by training basic mental faculties (e. g. , logic, attention, memory) in the exercise of suitable subjects, such as Latin or geometry. With the turn of the 20th century, learning, and therefore transfer of learning, was increasingly captured in behavioral and empiricist terms, as in the Connectionist and Associationist theories of Thorndike (e. g. , 1932), Guthrie (e. g. , 1935), Hull (e. g. , 1943), and muleteer (e. g. , 1938).Thorndike (1923, 1924a and b) attacked the Formal Discipline empirically and theoretically and introduced the theory of identical elements, which is probably still today the most influential conception about transfer (Thorndike, 1906 Thorndike &038 Woodworth, 1901a, b and c). Thorndikes belief that transfer of learning occurs when learning source and learning target share common stimulus-response elements prompted calls for a hierarchical curricular social system in education. Lower and specific skills should be learned before more complex skills, which were presumed to consist largely of configuration of basic skills.This small-to-large learning, also referred to as part-to-whole or vertical transfer, has been customary with theories of learning hierarchies (Gagne, 1968). It has later been challenged from conceptualistic point of views, which argue that learning is not just an accumulation of pieces of knowledge (i. e. , rote learning memorization), but rather a process and product of alert spin of cognitive knowledge structures (Bruner, 1986 Bruner, Goodnow &038 Austin, 1956). Knowledge, from a constructivist perspective, was no more believed to be a simple transfer by generalization to all kinds of situations and tasks that contain similar components (i. . , stimulus-response patterns see also Logan, 1988 Meyers &038 Fisk, 1987 Osgood, 1949 Pavlov, 1927). The critical issue was the identification of similarities in general principles and concepts behind the facades of two dissimilar problems i. e. , transfer by insight. This idea became popular in the Gestaltists view on transfer (e. g. , Katona, 1940), and, in combination with evolution interest in learners as self activated problem-solvers (Bruner, 1986), promote the search for abstract problem-solving methods and mental schemata, which serve as analogy-enhancing transfer-b ridges between different task situations.Emerging from these developments, a new theme started to dominate educationalists research in transfer meta-cognition (Brown, 1978 Brown &038 Campione, 1981 Campione &038 Brown, 1987 Flavell, 1976). In contrast to classical knowledge forms like declarative and procedural knowledge, different types of meta-knowledge and meta-cognitive skills such as strategic knowledge, heuristics, self-monitoring skills, and self-regulation quickly became the road to learning and transfer.Characterized as self-conscious management and organization of acquired knowledge (Brown, 1987) it is lucid that meta-cognitive awareness of task features, problem structures, and solution methods makes relations between different situations cognitively salient only an individual who learns from learning, learns for future learning. Soini (1999) developed on the same core ideas an examination of the preconditions for active transfer. Her emphasis is on the active and self-r eflected management of knowledge to increase its accessibility.To some researchers, meta-cognition and transfer have become so entangled that the argument was generated that only the measurement of positive transfer effects truly supports inferences that meta-cognitive learning has taken place (e. g. MacLeod, Butler &038 Syer, 1996). The stimulus generalisation predicament return to the specificity view Ever since the introduction of the meta-knowledge theme in education science, transfer discussions have been oscillating between the position taken by those representing the meta-cognitive view and those who stress that generic knowledge forms alone do not allow an effective transfer of learning.When knowledge stays on the tip of the tongue, just knowing that one knows a solution to a problem, without being able to transfer specific declarative knowledge (i. e. , know-what) or automated procedural knowledge (i. e. , know-how), does not suffice. Specific teaching of the cognitive an d behavioral requisites for transfer marked in principle a return to the identical element view, and can be summarized with Dettermanns (1993) conclusion that transfer does not substantially go beyond the restricted boundaries of what has been specifically taught and learned.The basic transfer paradigms in educational psychology keep replicating themselves, and fundamental forwarding of transfer itself is seen to be achievable through sensibilization of students by creating a general culture and a spirit of transfer inside the classroom on the one hand, and by allowing concrete learning from transfer models on the other (Haskell, 2001). Learning and transfer implications for educational practice A modern view of transfer in the context of educational practice shows little need to distinguish between the general and specific paradigms, recognizing the role of both identical elements and metacognition.In this view, the work of Bransford, Brown and Cocking (1999) identified four key c haracteristics of learning as applied to transfer. They are 1. The necessity of initial learning 2. The importance of abstract and contextual knowledge 3. The conception of learning as an active and high-octane process and 4. The notion that all learning is transfer. First, the necessity of initial learning for transfer specifies that mere exposure or memorization is not learning there moldiness be understanding.Learning as understanding takes time, such that expertise with deep, organized knowledge improves transfer. Teaching that emphasizes how to use knowledge or that improves need should enhance transfer. Second, while knowledge anchored in context is important for initial learning, it is also inflexible without some level of abstraction that goes beyond the context. Practices to improve transfer include having students specify connections across multiple contexts or having them develop general solutions and strategies that would apply beyond a unity-context case.Third, learn ing should be considered an active and dynamic process, not a static product. Instead of one-shot tests that follow learning tasks, students can improve transfer by engaging in assessments that break away beyond current abilities. Improving transfer in this way requires instructor prompts to assist students such as dynamic assessments or student development of metacognitive skills without prompting. Finally, the fourth characteristic defines all learning as transfer.New learning builds on previous learning, which implies that teachers can facilitate transfer by activating what students know and by making their thinking visible. This includes addressing student misconceptions and recognizing cultural behaviors that students bring to learning situations. A student-learning centered view of transfer embodies these four characteristics. With this conception, teachers can help students transfer learning not just between contexts in academics, but also to common home, work, or communit y environments. Inter- nomenclature transferAnother traditional field of applied research is inter-language transfer. Here, the central questions were how does learning one language (L1) facilitate or interfere (Weinreich, 1953) with the acquisition of and proficiency in a second language (L2), and how does the training and use of L2, in turn, affect L1? Several variations of this conception of inter-language transfer can be found in the literature, also referred to as fetch tongue influence or cross language interference (Corder, 1983, 1994 Faerch &038 Kasper, 1987 Jiang &038 Kuehn, 2001 Odlin, 1989 OMalley nd Chamot, 1990). What makes inter-language transfer a complex and valuable research national is the fact that language knowledge skills continuously develop. This is so for L1, as well as for L2, when only bilingualism is considered, while alternately at least one of them is continuously in use. This has led to the development of very different models of how languages are men tally correspond and managed, with L1 and L2 seen as two independent or autonomous mental systems (e. g. Genesee, 1989 Grosjean, 1989), as being represented in a single unified system (e. g.Redlinger &038 Park, 1980 Swain, 1977), and as rooting in a common underlying, multi-lingual conceptual base (CUCB see Kecskes &038 Papp, 2000). humanity-Computer Interaction designing for transfer A third research area that has produced a variety of transfer models and empirical results can be located within the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). With the start of the user age in the 1980s, HCI and all kinds of virtual environments have, in many ways, become something like psychological micro-worlds for cognitive research. This is naturally also reflected in the study of transfer.Developments in favor of cognitive approaches to transfer research were oddly accelerated by rapid changes in modern lifestyles, resulting in a virtual upsurge of cognitive demands in interaction with appli ed science. Thus, the call was on clearly domain-focused cognitive models to study the way users learn and perform when interacting with information technological systems (Card, Moran &038 Newell, 1980a and b, 1983 Olson &038 Olson, 1990 Payne &038 Green, 1986 Polson, 1987, 1988). Transfer based on the user complexity theory Thorough investigations of cognitive skills involved in HCI tasks have their origins with the research on text editing (e. . , Kieras &038 Polson, 1982, 1985 Singley &038 Anderson, 1985). The offspring of this type of research were computational cognitive models and architectures of various degrees of sophistication, suitable for all kinds of man-machine interaction studies, as well as studies outside of the HCI domain. The original examples for these have become Kieras and Polsons (1985) user complexity theory (later rephrased as cognitive complexity theory) and the GOMS family (i. e. , Goals, Operators, Methods, Selection) rules based on the Model Human Proce ssor framework (Card et al. , 1980a and b, 1983 John &038 Kieras, 1996a and b).All of these models have their roots in the basic principles of production systems and can be comprehended with the help of ends-means-selections and If-Then-rules, combined with the necessary declarative and procedural knowledge (Anderson, 1995 Newell &038 Simon, 1972). The crucial perspective for transfer became that of technology design. By applying cognitive models, scientists and practitioners aimed at minimizing the amount and complexity of new knowledge necessary to understand and perform tasks on a device, without trading off too much utility value (Polson &038 Lewis, 1990).A key responsibility was given to skill and knowledge transfer. Due to the fact that the cognitive complexity theory is a psychological theory of transfer applied to HCI (Bovair, Kieras, &038 Polson, 1990 Polson &038 Kieras, 1985), the central question was how these models, united under the GOMS umbrella, can be used to explain and predict transfer of learning. The basic transfer-relevant assumptions of the emerging models were that production rules are cognitive units, they are all equally difficult to learn, and that learned rules can be transferred to a new task without any cost.Because learning time for any task is seen as a function of the number of new rules that the user must learn, total learning time is directly reduced by comprehension of productions the user is already familiar with. The basic message of the cognitive complexity theory is to conceptualize and induce transfer from one system to another by function of shared production rules, which is a new interpretation of Thorndikes (1923, 1924a and b) identical element premise and eventually echoed in Singley and Andersons (1989) theory of transfer (Bovair et al. 1990 Kieras &038 Bovair, 1986 Polson &038 Kieras, 1985 Polson, Muncher &038 Engelbeck, 1986). A practical implication of the procedural communality principle has been formulated by Lewis and Rieman (1993), who suggest something like transfer of design on the side of the industry You should find existing interfaces that work for users and then build ideas from those interfaces into your systems as much as practically and legally possible. Emergence of holistic views of useDiscouraged by the imprisoned character of the GOMS-related transfer models, many research groups began to import and advance new concepts, such as schemata principles and general methods a general development encouraged by the emerging cognitive approach to transfer that was also witnessed by other applied fields. Bhavnani and John (2000) analyzed different computer applications and strived to recognize such user strategies (i. e. , general methods to perform a certain task), which deduce across three distinct computer domains (word processor, spreadsheet, and CAD).Their conclusive argument is that strategy-conducive systems could facilitate the transfer of knowledge (p. 338). Other resear ch groups authors that assessed the questions about how people learn in interaction with information systems, evaluated the usefulness of metaphors and how these should be taken into precondition when designing for exploratory environments (e. g. Baecker, Grudin, Buxton, &038 Greenberg, 1995 Carroll &038 Mack, 1985, Condon, 1999).As researchers became increasingly interested in the quality of a users knowledge representation (e. g. , Gott, Hall, Pokorny, Dibble, &038 Glaser, 1993), mental models and adaptive expertise, as knowledge and skills which generalizes across different contexts of complex problem-solving tasks, became of paramount concern (Gentner &038 Stevens, 1983 Gott, 1989 Kieras &038 Bovair, 1984). In contrast to the knowledge of strategies (Bhavnani &038 John, 2000), the accentuation shifted towards strategic knowledge (Gott et al. 1993). Gott et al. demonstrated that surface similarities between different technical domains alone did not essentially facilitate transfe r of learning because they limited the users flexibility in the adaptation process. In accordance with the ideas of schema-based and meta-cognitive transfer, the authors still formulated that robust performance is one in which procedural steps are not just naked, rule-based actions, but instead are back up by explanations that perform like theories to enable adaptiveness (p. 60). Gott et al. (1993) finally noted that mental models might be powerful instruments to analyze similarities between tasks as represented within a formulated cognitive architecture. However, they do not explain what particular similarities and differences are sufficiently salient from the individuals mental point of view to affect transfer of learning, nor can they predict motivational or ablaze conditions of transfer that are essential requisites for every learning process.

Thursday, January 24, 2019


This report evaluates the recent enlisting and selection piecements for the sales assistants. It focuses on the opportunities and chastenesss that both the labour commercializes placed upon the enlisting and selection of sales assistants at A-B-Zee. It also examines the individual and governing bodyal benefits that could be gained by providing non-standard working arrangements for sales assistants at A-B-Zee. The report fin ally proposes a strategy recommending how A-B-Zees succeeding(prenominal) turn on might ensure a greater response from members of the heathenish nonage community.Organisations response to the opportunities and constraints placed upon it by both local anesthetic labour groceryplaces in the recruitment and selection knead The general constraint in the recruitment process was that A-B-Zee was new to the each labour market and thus had no reputation to call upon in its search for woodland employees. Also the rate of pay being offered still follows that of the p arnt connection. In London, the full-page display advertising on the newspaper was a superb opportunity to get crossways to possible appli tummyts because the advertisement were imaginative and attracted attention.However, the recruitment team were confront with the constraint of the accessibility to these advertisements to enough potential employees who amply met A-B-Zees criteria and sustenance of the supportdidates interest in the vacancy. Also, they were confront with cartridge clip constraint, as the length of the ensuing recruitment process may not meet the store opening date. The Recruitment team responded, first, by trying to speed up the recruitment process. They introduced the phone-in and walk-in facility to the advertisement.The phone-in enabled A-B-Zee to arrange immediate references for those evaluated as suitable from the evidence of the telephone interview. They also responded by simplifying the application form to make its completion more convenien t. The walk-in opening night involved one to one meeting with interested candidates. They were able to successfully use the walk-in to improver the number of applicants and also to influence those that ar suitable to join the come with. In instances where parents wanted to cancel due to not having arrangement for someone to look after the children, A-B-Zee invited them to bring along the children.This seemed to be a good opportunity to attract potential employees with parental experience. The government also responded by making application forms and letters of offer right away available, thus increase the speed of the play alongs response. This particularly met the companys needs with regards to speed. One other constraint which the recruitment team discovered was that the attraction of applicants was limited by the readership of the newspaper. The company responded by producing leaflets. These were distributed to houses reasonably dummy up to the store and to those of the heathenish minority around the store.This was carried stunned in order to meet the objective of having a balance work personnel office in terms of gender, age and ethnic minority. Apart from being advantageously accessible, the recruitment team also responded by making themselves more available. They worked through the evenings and weekends, thereby making them more available to applicants. At the northern store, the windup of several manufacturing companies was an opportunity to lay down a large pool of potential candidates. A-B-Zee alsok the initiative to solicit with the local Job Centre. The go out was that there were too many applications to be processed.The major constraint was snip. As a result of the huge number of applications, there was constraint in the task of short-listing for interview which was as a resulted of the enormous volume of applications received. Majority of the applicants were of good whole step Also, given the size of the task and the time ava ilable it was precise plausibly that the quality of the short-listing decisions would be affected. The lay-out of the application form did not table service the short-listing process at all. The most relevant information was not grouped together.This was a major constraint as swell because more resources, effort and time had to be devoted to responding to all the applicants. The recruitment team was also faced with the constraint of having to respond quickly and courteously to all applicants (unsuccessful as well as short-listed applicants). This was in a bid to initiate and maintain goodwill among its potential customers. Also, the bid to recruit a balanced workforce crossways gender, age and ethnic group could not be achieved because, of the numerous applications received, really few were from the ethnic minority.In general, the recruitment process at the northern store proved to be very resource-intensive Individual and Organisational Benefits that could be gained by provi ding non-standard working arrangements for sales assistants. The organization Benefits that A-B-Zee could gain if it proposes non-standard working arrangements to the sales assistants imply Reduced absenteeism as the workers will have time to attend to family and person-to-person commitments. This will guarantee a high staff attendance and increase productivity and efficiency in the stores (Wood & Payne 1998).Apart from that, non-standard working arrangements provide a wide pool of potential employees from which the HR department can choose from. Another major benefit tot he organisation is that it could also reduce the fixed costs associated with standard contracts and a unceasing working force which seem to ask for more payments as they detain at the company. Hiring odd-job(prenominal) staff is a safer choice in this time of economic uncertainty and could also be a method for the company to screen and evaluate new-hires and perhaps offer them full-time positions in the next(a) day and when needed. The sales assisatantsBenefits of non-standard working arrangements to the sales assistants include a work-life balance resulting in increased motivation and profession satisfaction (Nadler, 1984). It also gives the employee the opportunity to unload into other endeavours, such as studying or taking up another part-time job that is not in conflict with the period one. Apart from this, it puts the employee in a position to accept or exasperate job offers that would require them to work longer ZZZhours. Mothers are exposed to the job market where they can obtain work experience, gain skills and sample the drill situation.Also, reacquiring work skills and confidence may be an interesting opportunity for mothers who have withdrawn from employment for a long period of time. (Mangum n. d. Howe 1986) Strategy, recommending how A-B-Zees next campaign might ensure a greater response from members of the ethnic minority community Initial survey of the labour market In order to attract more members of the ethnic minority in future recruitment campaigns, I believe that an initial survey of the labour market in question should be carried out before commencement of the recruitment process.This would give an insight into the location, size and needs of the ethnic minority in such labour market. Location of new stores The location of new stores may be considered based on the findings above, thus bringing the stores in close proximity to the ethnic minority. Advertisement and Application forms Creating awareness in the hindquarters area would increase the chances of getting applicants. As A-B-Zee is new to the labour market, placing advertisement on the radio and television and providing information to the public on whatA-B-Zee is all about, what they do and when their superstores would be open, would definitely increase its awareness to the target community. therefore when job advertisements are placed, people have an idea of what company t hey are going to be potentially working for. The job advertisement should be able to reflect the companys policy of recruiting a balanced workforce across gender, age and ethnic minority.This could be achieved by including the ethnic minority in the promotional materials i. . putting images of both ethnic and non-ethnic minority on the advertisement. This would catch the eye of any member of the ethnic minority that sees the advertisement and would encourage them to apply for the job. It should also emphasize on the part-time work register being offered by the company. Presenting a work schedule that encourages flexibility my appeal to women of the ethnic minority who believe that they might not have time to take care of their children (Moosa, 2009).Also by religious offering skills training in the advertisement, members of the ethnic minority may be promote to apply in a bid to be trained on their communication and interpersonal skills. The application forms should be simple, wel l laid out and should also include statements of assurance that A-B-Zee recruits a balanced workforce across gender, age and ethnic group. The selection and hiring process To attract more members of the ethnic minority, A-B-Zee needs to convince their target that the ethnic minority is well represent in the company.This I believe can be achieved by increasing the involvement of the minority in the interview process. Other recommendations that can function with the recruitment process include, 1. Carrying out a salary survey and fall over It is possible that the pay rates based on the parent companys standards may not be appealing to the target market of future campaigns. By carrying out a salary survey, A-B-Zee can elaborate the competitive position of the company in terms of recruitment and can then review the salary being offered. 2. Considering using recruitment agencies in part or all of the recruitment process. This would definitely reduce the work-load on the Human Resourc es team. 3. Since the target market is people with parenting experience, A-B-Zee may offer child-care weapons platform to its prospective employees. Child care programs have proven to produce reductions in turn-over, less absenteeism, recruiting advantage and positive impact on productivity and at the same time serve the companys public affinity interest (Howe, 1986).In conclusion, resourcing for manpower for a new superstore is a very challenging task that requires proper planning and hard work, putting into devotion that the company is new to the labour market. In order to acquire a balanced workforce across gender, age and ethnic minority, cultural norms and breastwork between the age groups as well as between the absolute majority and minority have to be overcome. Raising awareness could also help to bring about more participation by the minorities in future recruitment campaigns.

Corporate Culture

Corporate last has been said to be the toughest component of a business to change. Do you take for or disagree with this statement and why? I do suppose In this statement and believe that It Is actually true. The companys purification Is something that consists of the values, norms, and the goals of the organization. When all of these things atomic number 18 put together, they form the culture of that company. Any company that is being wrong plunder obtain all of these goals. However, they must surely stand to steady down in the future. Un honest behavior go out always come to the motiveless in given time.If a company selects to run In an organized, ethical way wherefore the company will surely not lack to change their culture but to build on It and Increase positivistic in It. A company that hasnt been running so smoothly and In the ethical way will stupefy a hard time in changing its ways. When we think of culture we think of a lifesize term with a large meaning. For example, if the United States wanted to change something culturally, then we would have a very hard time in doing so. archetypal beca single-valued function our ultra is NOT to do what someone else says to do but what we, in general, say to do.It can be the same with a business. Even though It may be easy for the company to see the rewards of changing the culture of the business, actually Implementing and following that change will be difficult. Define the five dollar bill types of billet according to French and Ravens theory. Provide examples of each. According to this theory, there argon 5 types of indicator Coercive, Reward, Legitimate, Referent, and Expert. Coercive power is something, or an action, that someone in power will take in order to make hangs go their way. Threats and punishment are common tools of coercion. Implying or threatening that someone will be fired, demoted, denied privileges, or given un wanted assignments (French and Ravens fin Forms of Power, Rew ard power is something that someone will do in order to praise an employee apparently only a person who has access and the ability to reward nation. Raises, promotions, desirable assignments, training opportunities, and even simple compliments (French and Ravens Five Forms of Power, n. D).Legitimate power is a type of power that can be unpredictable and unstable. If you lose the appellation or position, legitimate power can Instantly disappear since others were Influenced by the position, not by you. Also, your scope of power Is limited to situations that others believe you have a right to control. If the fire chief tells people to stay international from a burning building, theyll probably find out. But if he tries to make people stay away from a street fight, people may tumefy ignore him (French and Ravens Five Forms of Power, n. . ). Referent power Is sometimes thought of as charisma, charm, admiration, or appeal. Referent power comes from one person Liking and respecting another, and powerfully Identifying with that person In some way. Celebrities have referent power, which is why they can influence everything from what people buy to whom they elect to office. In a workplace, a person with charm often makes everyone feel good, so he or she tends to have a lot of influence (French and Ravens Five Forms of Power, n. D. ).Lastly, expert power is when you have knowledge and skills that enable you to understand a situation, suggest solutions, use solid Judgment, and generally outperform others, people will probably listen to you. When you subject matter expert, your ideas will have more value, and others will bear to you for leadership in that area (French and Ravens Five Forms of Power, n. D. ). Reference French and Ravens Five Forms of Power Understanding Where Power Comes From in the Workplace. (n. D. ). Retrieved September 6, 2014, from http//www. Middleton. Com/ pages/article/Newell_56. hypertext mark-up language

Wednesday, January 23, 2019

Perserving Nature, Perserving Us Essay

When John Berger suggests, It is within this bleak natural condition that dealer is encountered, and the encounter is by its character sudden and unpredictable (Berger 92) he establishes that even though there are rare moments of viewer form in record, n ane of them are permanent. He goes further to explain that these moments of beauty are examples of art Art is an organized response to what nature allows us to glimpse occasionally (Berger 94). This suggests that nature is precisely comely when these infrequent flashes are captured in art. For example, the idea of the white poultry that Berger discusses in his essay is taken from nature and is molded into a delicate, precious handmade piece.When the factual bird is mentioned in his essay he says, Outside, in minus 25C, the real birds are freezing to death (Berger 94). His forthlook on nature is portrayed as beastly. Only the idea of the white bird sculpture is bonny to him. Though the suffering bird isnt the most app ealing supposition it is nature, it is real. He is referring to his idea that within these bleak natural contexts, beauty is encountered. of beauty, how stinkpot these batch continue to be so dedicated with preserving nature?It is advocated that nature is consistently beautiful alone. These organizations and groups are devoted to preserving and allowing nature to be beautiful permanently. Like Berger says art is the permanence of natures beauty, the goal of these people is to transform the art, or the instant of beauty into an endless aesthetic. A bonny moment in the eye of Berger is instants that provoke aesthetic emotion. These brief seconds in metre portray hopefulness within nature.He says that by organizing these hopeful and beautiful moments in time, art is therefore formed. Art by definition is whatsoever of various pursuits or occupations in which creative or imaginative accomplishment is applied according to aesthetic principles (OED). These moments are found so slen derly because nature is and will always be un certain(a).Even in instantlys world with all the technology, we are still not prepared for the wrath of nature, let alone to fathom how harsh or when these vol brush asideic moments will arise. The idea Berger offers that nature solely has brief periods of beauty supports my oppugn of why people try so hard to preserve nature itself. Today people are involved with environmental programs such as Greenpeace and recycling, all with the same goal of trying to preserve and save the future day of our planet. If Bergers point of view is that nature only has a certain extent of beauty, how can these people continue to preserve nature? We recover beauty all around us. It starts right here at home.organism a student at NYU its customary to walk by uppercase Square Park each day. While in the putting surface we retard many forms of art. The question arises that why in an urban urban center do we have parking lots? We have an assortm ent of pose, from central park to Union Square Park and many more than through out the city. Well the logic behind having these parks is that they portray beauty in the most desolate plains. After a long day of beingness locked up in classes, the only thing that acts as an outlet from classes and discipline is sitting in Washington Square Park. The park not only acts as an escape, still it allows one to find peace within the trying and chaotic city.When I am in the park I can release my genius as well as be one with nature. record is beautiful. Nature or these parks will always be beautiful even in the winter. How many times have you seen pictures of Washington Square Park with snow covered benches, and the frozen fountain, and it still be the most breath-taking scene? The community and these organizations thrive on remaining, and protecting parks such as these. It is because of people like this, people who care, people who see beauty where it may not be all the time is w hy nature and these parks are aesthetic. Ann Zwinger, the author of A Desert military man allegorizes the representation that nature holds.Her core ideas of endurance, empathy, and anguish that each grain of anchor holds exemplify her reason for constructing this essay. Nature gives us a certain condition for how the world cultivates itself and how it has fashioned our daily lives. Zwigger views the most desolate environment as beautiful and hopeful. Similarly, Bergers essay implies that natures beauty comes and goes whereas Zwinger makes it clear that nature always demonstrates beauty and stories.She furthers her thinking by clarifying, I harmonise the physiological adjustments of blood and urine, hearing and seeing, of adaptations in behavior that make heart in the discontinue not only possible with verve, qualities seen and unseen that darn out not only survival, but survival with zest (Zwigger 416).These things that locomote in nature are not hardly getting by, but yet t hey flourish because of innovation forced upon them when evolution occurs. It is important to record how the world came to be signifying the optimism of aesthetics, and yet there is still an immense area for development. The sight of a visually appealing landscape is irreplaceable, but overly a memorandum of where we come from. If we take a step patronize and try and interpret what Zwinger is trying to say, she is saying beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. To me what may be beautiful is the opposite of what Zwinger thinks.She views the cave and the desert to be the most beautiful thing. However, to me I find the sparkling waters in the Caribbean simply spectacular. As she finds the ability of animals to survive and evolve in the desert to be beautiful and intriguing, comparably, I find these sea creatures to be the same. The funding down of ocean spirit that is flourishing that we dont even agnise about is not only unfathomable but is beautiful. Even the isolated of n ature is beautiful. Damien Hirst perfectly depicts art that is nature frozen in time similarly to the concept that John Berger discusses in his essay.Hirsts series The snowy Cube, are these simple, transparent glass boxes with motionless animals inside them. These animals are not just examples, but they are natures beauty captured by art. This explicitly illustrates my thoughts on the biggest contrasts between how Berger views nature and my own views. I purport that by capturing these moments they become stuck or full of tension. Moreover, Hirsts artwork can are arguably not be beautiful in that life cannot be seen in these still pieces of art. On the other hand, to further my thinking, Zwinger may view his work to imprison nature.These freely roaming creatures are now fixed. The question pose in this essay was why do we preserve nature? I believe that nature is kept preserved because if we do not uphold nature, we will not be alive. There are many things in this world that we ta ke for granted, nature being one of them. Even Berger describes nature as being energy and struggle he goes further to articulates, Nature has no promises. Berger fully understands the delicacy of nature but he fails to separate its overall beauty. Furthermore I think that from natures beauty humans can learn about themselves.An example of this can be hunting. Humans hunt for animals, however hunting teaches you a lot more then just how to shoot a gun. Hunting teaches you how to be patient. It teaches you to keep an eye on and to be thankful. Hunting is a form of nature. It is a way of life that happens within nature everyday. If we keep these positive attributes of nature in mind we will want to preserve the wilderness. The more we look into why we keep nature around the more we can learn about ourselves. flora CitedBerger, John. The White Bird. The Sense of Sight. NY Vintage, 1993. 5-11.Zwinger, Ann. A Desert World. Trans. Array Occasions for Writing- Evidence, Idea, Essay. Boston, MA Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2008. 415-416. Print.