Thursday, February 28, 2019

Making Scotch

hybridise whisky is traditionally made with just barleycorncorn and water. Also referred to as malt whiskey, bewilder, in the beginning of the production cultivate, requires barley grains to be steeped in water until they sprout. The germinating barley is generally spread on the floor of a malting house where it slide bys to develop over the course of a week or two.The grains argon turned over regularly during this malting period, exploitation a paddle to allow air to get at them and to foster even development. The starch in the barley turns to sugar, and sprouting is stopped at the optimum time by placing the barley in an oven or kiln. Traditionally, Scotch makers used peat fired ovens to give the Scotch its peaty, smoky taste. Some di unsoundederies continue to retain the peaty flavor of Scotch today by suntan peat and blowing the smoke over the grain.Once the barley is dry, it is milled to produce a floury substance called grist. This substance is rich in sugar, and mixed w ith alive(p) water to create a mash. The mash is placed in a large cylindrical metal vessel or container called a mash tun. In shape to release the sugars, the contenteds of the mash tun are steamy regularly. At the conclusion of this process, a silver-tongued known as wort is produced. This hot, sweet, non- intoxi sighttic liquid is transferred to a large wooden dampback, which is similar to a giant wooden pail that is commonly made from Oregon pine or Cypress, twain of which are highly resistant to fungi.The yeast is added in the washback to begin the upheaval process. During this process, the sugar in the wort is turned into alcohol as the solution bubbles and foams furiously before gradually slowing down. The sugar is converted over a period of two to four days. At the end ofthis process, the alcohol content of the product is no more than approximately 8-9%. The Scotch is not ready, and so the liquid wash must be distilled down to the required alcohol content.Distillati on is the next major step in Scotch making. This process deports place in copper business deal stills that have a distinctive, swan-neck shape. The shape of the stills and the length of the neck determine the character of the last product.Typically, at that place are two kinds of stills involved in the distillation process the wash still and the relish still. The first is used to produce the first distillation, referred to as low wines. This product is distilled for the second time in the spirit still before it is collected as the strong distilled spirit. This spirit is not operating(a), however. Hence, it is diverted into a receiving tank. The terminal product of the second distillation is not useable either. But it is saved to be added to the next batch of low wines.The glass-fronted spirit safe is where the spirit is tested with a hydrometer as it leaves the pot stills. In Scotland, this safe is heavily padlocked by the Customs & Excise to go on any possibility of the d istillery siphoning off the spirit in order to avoid the payment of legal duty on it.Following this formality, the final spirit is collected in the receiving tank. It is now prepared to go into position for the next stage of the Scotch making process maturation. Scotch whiskey is normally stored in barrels that have been previously used. It takes around one-third years at least to call it Scotch, however. Maturation may take anything from three years to twenty years. Before it is matured, the Scotch is simply referred to as spirit.During the process of maturation, around 2% of the spirit is lost each year due to evaporation. Once the malt whiskey has been matured for the required time, it can be bottled and labeled. However, if it is to be used as part of a immingle whiskey, the master liquidiser would nose eachwhiskey to determine its characteristics and to escort that the consistency of the specific blend is maintained.Blenders may include in the final blend as many as thir ty or twoscore different malt and grain whiskeys. The blender is also responsible for ensuring that a particular blend retains its consistency over a number of years. For this reason, the blenders nose must be skilled.Coloring is added at this rase to the Scotch, and the drink is chill-filtered so as to remove the oils that cause cloudiness when spyglass is added. The prepared whiskey, whether blended or not, is then transferred to the bottling plant where it is bottled using modify methods. It is also noteworthy that some of the processes mentioned in the making of Scotch are now automated. As an example, barley may be turned or ploughed with automatic paddles as opposed to manually during the grain germination process. The chief fermentation and distillation processes, however, have largely remained unchanged in the last couple of hundred years.Bibliography1. Distillery Journey Making Scotch Whiskey. (1998). Cocktail Times. Retrieved from http//www.cocktailtimes.com/distillery /making_scotch.shtml. (15 March 2007).2. Making Scotch Whiskey A outline Explanation of the Traditional Method. (2005). Loch Lomond Distillers. Retrieved from http//www.lochlomonddistillery.com/making-scotch.htm. (15 March 2007).

Theories of Social Inequality

Karl Marxs guess to explain genial variety is base on the unequal division of resources between two groups bourgeoisie and the labor, or the wealthy/ business owners and the laborers. According to Marx, the bourgeoisie have the monetary author to gain economical resources, as they own the businesses where the proletariat must take a shit to gain money to survive. The bourgeoisie maintains this position by paying the proletariat Just enough to provide for his or her basic needs of survival. Marx states that the bourgeoisie create the mixer rules, cultural values and orms, and the proletariat goes along with it.This judgement is the basis for what Marx calls, false consciousness, which is the idea that the system is working and there is no reason to change it because the proletariat hopes that one day he bequeath become the bourgeoisie this false hope is what keeps social inequality in a perpetual cycle. Marx believed that social inequality can be unflinching by the abolis hment of capitalism altogether. He suggested that this could be made doable if the proletariat would stand up and revolt, and establish up against capitalism by refusing to ork and sell their very valuable labor, which the bourgeoisie needs in gear up to survive.Marx did not see social inequality as inescapable, unlike sludge Weber. The basis for Webers theory can be found in Karl Marxs theory, nevertheless takes it a step further and breaks the social structure up all the same more. According to Max Webers theory behind social inequality, there ar three major components that play into creating an unequal division in lodge social class, status in society, and semipolitical parties. Each group right away relates to one another, although they argon not all the same thing. Weber contends that social classes are divided because of certain lifestyles or opportunities that are given toa person.If a person is born into a wealthy family, he or she is automatically provided with a lifestyle that will propel him or her into success through money and/or properties, which inevitably creates an opportunity for power. This demonstrates how money and power clear shapes classes. Classes do not always make up communities though. Communities are mold by social status, which is one thing that Weber is clear about. societal status is defined by the pportunity for a wealthy lifestyle. The main passing between status and class is that of the value system within distributively of the groups.Through a lifestyle that one lives, ideals and values are developed, which creates ones political stance. goernmental parties are a direct reflection of the pattern that creates class and social status. They are all intermingled class determines social status, which shapes ideals within a political party. Weber makes a strong argument that social stratification is inevitable or guaranteed because lifestyles (which you are born into) create status groups and nce those are establi shed, over a period of time, the people accept them as status quo.Once a standard of life is set, it is rarely moved. Karl Marx theory behind social inequality is most compelling. It explains that social inequality, which is detrimental to so many, can be resolved. His theory gives hope for resolution and even offers a plan of action to do so, yet there have been little done by those who experience like they are oppressed by the unjust division ot resources to rise up and change the system which oppresses them. Marx theory is timeless and continues to speak to those issues which are seen in todays society.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Outline and Evaluate the Use of One Qualitative Method

Outline and evaluate the subprogram of whizz soft mode in the academic subject area of sport Denzin and capital of Nebraska (2000a) call up that qualitative enquiry is guided by 3 principles assumptions, value and beliefs. These work a seest, along attitude or deep down positivist and post-positivist models. Quantitative search is the use of numerical measurements and analysis that involves measur subject quantities by Gratton and Jones (2004). Quantitative information is collected through closed interrogations as it is in pasture to stand facts.While qualitative entropy, on the new(prenominal) hand, predominantly uses wanton styled questions to gull much information through follow up questions, extensive answers and debates. There argon many differences between the two paradigms with the look intoer macrocosm objective, and detached from the overthrow under investigation deep down quantitative entropy said by Gratton and Jones (2004). further, qualitative re search is rather the opposite, with the researcher being in place to call for to a greater extent information from the participants in question.In addition to the previous, Morse, Swanson and Kuezel (2001) suppose a quantitative research requires the researcher to carefull define variables that may be quantified with numbers. On the other hand, qualitative research is a more holistic perspective rather than a hypothesis confirmation. Berg and Latin (2008) believe qualitative research allows an open-ended and flexible approach to assessment. inside the qualitative paradigm in that location are several different selective information accretion methods such as open questionnaires, interviews, observation, visual and textual analysis.I will be knocked out(p)lining and evaluating the use of interviews inside the academic study of sport this will be focus oned mainly on focus crowds. Culver (2003) states that interviews are undoubtedly the most common method for collecting qualitat ive data within the study of sport. Pettigrew (1990) and Pettus (2001) to a fault state interviews offer a depth of information that permits the comminuted exploration of token issues in a way not practical with other forms of data collection.Within this type of research method there are 4 different types of interviews structured, semi-structured, unstructured and focus theme. Structured interviews are face-to-face (researcher & participant), consist of closed and pre-determined questions in addition to the structure being formal. Semi-structured interviews stomach be altered so that the participant(s) in question plenty ether clarify or elaborate on a fussy topic/statement. The approach to data collection is flexible, with probes being used to gather additional information.Unstructured interviews have a set theme with the respondent imparting(p) the interview. The questions are developed throughout, as they are not pre-determined. These questions are open and flexible. A n egative point to this interview structure is that theres a chance the interview will lack focus. instruction groups lam towards being semi-structured with a discussion thesis being used within an open environment focus groups consist of more than one person. rear Amis (2005) believes focus groups allow members to quarrel each other, develop positions of consensus, and build on each others ideas.In addition to this previous statement, Gratton and Jones (2004) believe that this heap become a negative point if the researcher doesnt apply the participants on topic, stating that participants may be tempted to provide false data to nominate an impression upon others in the group. This can be potentially avoided if you use either a random, or stratified random sample which has a divided population. Furthermore these participants wont know one another. Within focus groups there is a large quantity of strengths participants are able to elaborate on the particular subject(s) especially when the researcher uses probes.In conjunction to this Yin (1994) notes that the interviewer provides perceive casual inferences from the actors, rather than the researchers point of view. As a focus group is generally unstructured or semi-structured it enables participants to set off authorized insight into their attitudes and behaviours in addition to important themes and unexpected data to emerge, Gratton and Jones (2010). Focus groups are more flexible as you can also gain visual and vocal information for example body language, laughter, placidity or careful consideration, their tone of voice, or even simply what particular participants are saying.This can lead to the researcher probing as certain participants will be more passionate about certain themes/topics. Moreover you are able to gain a relationship with your participants, which can lead to them being more open and true to the information they give within the group. In conjunction with this, participants are informed that everything discussed is kept confidential, wherefore this will relax and ease participants so theyre able to engage fully within the discussions. Interviews require more resources in comparison to questionnaires.This could be in terms of time consumption or travelling, as a egress resulting samples can be small, Gratton and Jones (2010). Particular participants could take control of the interview therefore becoming dominant researchers must then put particular probes into suffice ensuring other group members get involved to gain a more diverse collection of data. On the other hand, participants could find focus group environments intimidating and/or off-putting which can lead to the participant(s) in question feeling under pressure to agree with the dominant participant. Evaluedonline) Analysing data can also be difficult in addition to recording the interview. commode Amis (2005) states that it is irrespective of the type of interview, that the way data is recorded should be found prior and it is standard procedure to record the interview on sound tape. The researcher must also ensure that the data gathered is reliable. Gratton and Jones (2004) believe that this can be represented with the equation reliability = number of agreements/(number of agreements + disagreements).psychological Qualities of selected Adolescent Rugby Players is a research study extension on Holland and colleagues (2010) study into required mental qualities of young talented rugby players, Woodcock et al (2011). Focus groups were completed following Kruger and Caseys (2000) recommended size of 6 to 8 participants, ensuring that you dont exceed 10. One group broke this rule of thumb with 2 participants participating within SAS (Sports Administration Staff), which could hinder studied data with the chance of agreement being likely and information being limited.Stewart, Shamdasani, and shrink from (2007) warn that fewer than eight participants can lead to a contract discussi on biased toward the views of a few individuals. Focus groups were held in acquainted(predicate) and comforting environments in addition to neutral locations for parents, which was in place to nonplus participants feel more at ease. The focus group was semi-structured with the moderator using probes to gain a more in-depth insight into their views and beliefs. Furthermore the moderator gained a relationship with the participants on entry so that theyd feel comfortable along with this method aiding them to participate within group discussions.Through using focus groups Woodcock et al (2011) founded 5 new subgroups within the 11 higher order themes identified by young players in Holland et al, (2010). These 5 subthemes were off pitch communication, reflection on their abilities in an objective manner, taking information and reproducing it as a visible action, dealing with injuries as well as attitude towards injuries and that players need to be problem solvers, able to adapt and ov ercome challenges.Parents and coaches supported development of individuals, not just in their rugby involvement but within other areas of life. Furthermore they discussed interactions that reinforced development within professional and performance environments. SAS highlighted within the study that the under-16 rugby programme was designed specifically to gradually challenge players and foster development of certain psychological qualities Woodcock et al (2011). This focus group helped gain further knowledge and insight within the psychological side of elite adolescent rugby players.Furthermore the ways in which parents, coaches and the SAS develop these players psychological in general day to day environments. A large bulk of the research gathered corresponds Holland and colleagues (2010) study. Gender perception of Wrestling is a movement study in place to gain research on whether or not grappling hook is a sport primarily for male athletes. This focus group consist of eight part icipants from both grammatical genders (stratified random sample), which was also semi-structured.Sports managers and administrators for wrestling are presented with the opportunity to encourage women to take part. For this to take place sports managers and/or administrators need to understand how women perceive the sport. Pfister, (2010) and Ward, (2010) state that there is a development number of women participating in sports with some women competing successfully in traditionally masculine sports. selective information collected from the focus group was substantial, with views from each gender being different this therefore made the study stand out more due to its hypothesis.The focus group underlined that they perceived wrestling to be more violent than other sports such as judo and taekwondo as self-defence wasnt an explicit objective, Leng (2012). Participants also reviewed the bodily attributes of a wrestler, as of this they understandably stated wrestling was a sport for at hletes who possess more physical attributes. Moreover, participants didnt regard wrestling as a sport favouring the interlocking of a particular gender.To conclude this case study qualitative data collected via participants within the focus group were views which outlined gender beliefs. It is run to see that focus groups are irreplaceable when accumulating qualitative research data within the academic study of sport. Gibbs (1997) states that the purpose of focus group research is to draw upon respondents attitudes, feelings, beliefs, experiences and reactions. Focus groups gather a whole source of information that cannot be obtained without debates and different views.When structured correctly the researcher is able to gain rich data that he can then press out front to ether make changes or put different methods in practice. Focus groups are best used when gaining data on something meaningful to the participants and/or collecting data for something that affects a large majority of people. Something else gathered from this is that when the moderator/research gains a relationship with the participant it is easier to gain more in-depth information. Bibliography Andrews, D. L. , Mason, D.S. and Silk, M. L. (2005) Qualitative Data in Sports Studies. New York Berg. Berg, K. E and Latin, R. W. (2008) question Methods in Health, Physical Education, workout Science, and Research (3rd Edition). Baltimore, MD Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Gratton, C. and Jones, I. (2004) Research Methods of Sports Studies (1st Edition). London Routledge. Gratton, C. and Jones, I (2006) Research Methods of Sports Studies (2nd Edition). Oxon Routledge. Woodcock, C. , Holland, M. J. G. , Duda, J. L, and Cumming, J. 2011) Psychological Qualities of Elite Adolescent Rugby Players Parents, Coaches, and Sport Administration Staff Perceptions and keep Roles. The Sport Psychologist, 25, 411-433. Leng, H. K. Kang, S. Y. Lim, C. Lit, J. J. Suhaimi, N. I. Umar, Y. (2012) Only For Males Gendered Perception of Wrestling. Choregia, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p43. Gibbs, A. (1997) Social Research Update, Issue 19 online. Available http//sru. soc. surrey. ac. uk/SRU19. html 8th November 2012 Evalued (2006) Focus Groups online. Available http//www. evalued. bcu. ac. uk/tutorial/4b. htm 8th November 2012

William Wordsworth’s Philosophy of Nature

William Wordsworth has respect or to a greater extent, great reverence for temper. This is pellucid in both of the poems Ode Intimations of Immortality and Lines Composed A Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey in that, his philosophy on God, immortality and innocence are elucidated in his contact with reputation. For Wordsworth, genius had a spirit, a mind of its own, and to know is so is to experience temper with both the five senses. In both his poems there are umteen references to seeing, hearing and feeling his surroundings.He speaks of mountains, the woods, the rivers and streams, and the fields. Wordsworth realized, in each of us, there is a natural affinity for a certain setting for nature. To elaborate, a fisherman would be most comfortable in a setting where he can be beside the sea, which is beside the shore. His affinity towards nature is oriented to the sea. In the alike(p) way, a shepherd would like to be move up meadows and fields and near lush rolling hills. Wordsw orths affinity would be to mountains, woods, rivers, streams, and fields.He knew the sprit, the soul and the feel of these places for he was able to experience these places in the fullness of jejuneness (Spark nones, n. d. ). Both of these poems by Wordsworth are poems of recollection and in these recollections, Wordsworth came across something that was very immortal Nature and its soul. Though change, death and destruction might be normal occurrences that come to nature, there is re stand and continuity to life. As in death and destruction, human endeavors are also mortal and temporary when compared to nature and its spirit.Nonetheless, though these things are only mortal, or temporary, they are still as much a part of it as much as water droplets individually make up a river. Of unremembered pleasure such, perhaps,/As submit no slight or trivial influence/On that scoop out portion of a good mans life ,/His microscopic nameless, unremembered, acts (Lines Composed A Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, stanza 2) portray life and all its endeavors as mundane to something immortal like nature and its spirit.Still these aspects of occasional life are swept away by the strong push back that binds the spirit of nature to its occupants. These sentiments are expressed in Ode as healthful Though nothing can bring back the hour/Of genius in the grass, or glory in flower/We will regret not, rather find/Strength in what remains behind/In the primal sympathy/Which having been must ever be/In that solace thought that spring/Out of human suffering (Ode Intimations of Immortality, stanza 10).Wordsworth also speaks of his warehousing of childhood or innocence retraced in communing with nature in his prominent years saying nature has the power to unearth those memories for a self-aggrandizing man to reflect upon. (Sparknotes, n. d. ) In Ode, he celebrates the gift of childhood depot or of innocence sharing the same insights in Tintern Abbey by expressing his witch t o find himself once more with nature. As a young male child he delighted in his every interaction with nature. Nature make his day.Though, times have changed, he does not mourn nor shed a tear from this bittersweet memory of childhood rather Wordsworth, reminisces with new insights or what he claims as mature gifts that comes with growing up, the childhood memories becoming more valuable by the discovery of a philosophic mind. Innocence is not all lost but can be retraced by dint of nature, nature reminding what has been lost and found. In the midst of his contemplation with nature, he discovers a removed greater power beyond humanity, the presence of God in nature, Our birth is but a sleep and a forgetting Not in inbuilt forgetfulness, / And not in utter nakedness, /But trailing clouds of glory do we come / From God, who is our home/ Heaven lies about in our infancy (Ode Intimations of Immortality,stanza 5) from Ode . He discusses further the relationship of God in Nature in Ti ntern Abbey. He goes, a motion and a spirit that impels / All thinking thoughts / And rolls through all things, (Lines Composed A Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, stanza 4) beyond nature, an sinew spurs him to weigh upon moral being.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

My High School Experience Essay

Everyone has heard or been told, high give lessons is what you make of it. naughty school is in fact what you make of it, but it is also the condemnation of great change in everybody. They say HIGH SCHOOL is the outstrip part of growing up and being a teenager. It is where we can buoy throw things, which we thought we can never make or do. It is where we discover and divulge things in our own and it is where we learn to become independent. In my four age of studying here, I discovered that there is more to feel than what we had imagined. I am able to learn many things ground on what my teachers had taught me and based on my own go steadys. I am able to enjoy and to be acquainted with myself more and I am able to distinguish my capabilities and talents. I am able to gain friends and I am able to interact and mingle more with the people around me.High School to me seemed similar it passed by really fast, almost too fast sometimes. I wise to(p) many valuable life lessons as well as do lifelong friends. I learned the value of hard work, dedication, and also how to key your real friends from the others. It was tough but overall a great experience that I will soon miss. Since being a freshman, I keep mainstay changed in a major way. Coming into high school I was a shy, unmotivated young man that didnt really know what he was getting into. I am leaving high school a man who is mature, outgoing, and very sure of himself. If high school has taught me anything, it is that you should incessantly have confidence in yourself. If you believe in yourself and you believe that you can achieve anything you want in life, good things will happen to you. subtile that I am graduating high school and never coming back hasnt really hit me yet. These four years has been an overall life changing experience that I will never forget.

Barangay Management System Essay

DE LA SALLE LIPACollege of Information Technology & EngineeringINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY departmentProponents Gonzales, MaricarLee, Kimberly Anne A.Suguitan, Constante IIISection IT4AProposed Title Barangay Management System for Brgy. Antipolo del NorteProblems/Opportunities1. The process of track records of daily, weekly and monthly records become less economical and less hi-fi because in a manual establishment the data might be misplaced or lost. 2. Having a manual record centering system requires a lot of storage space and filing equipment in the constituent because hard copies of the files are kept. 3. The process of writing the record manually in a piece of typography, keeping, and finding the records of the consumer are clipping consuming cause slow retrieval of information and transactions.Objectives1. To make a computerized record management system to easily find the records so that it is accurate, complete, accessible, and usable. 2. To reduce operating cost includin g office space, equipment and staff to maintain an organized filing system. 3. To minimize the time in writing the record, to eliminate the use of paper and to improve skill and productivity of the employee.ScopeThe scope of this system is to provide user efficient working environment and generates more output. This system provides friendly user interface resulting in knowing each and every usability features of the system. It prepares and prints barangay permits and certifications (e.g. Community Tax Certificate, Barangay Clearance, etc.) It in like manner processes fee such(prenominal) as barangay clearance fees and others. It also enables sonant seek of records. This system also allows for other barangay related functions as those including security such as incident reporting, blotter, and other related services. It also provides that it maintains an updated record of residents for easy identification, and updated references.It also provides a back-up and recovery utility fo r security. Also, this system provides high aim of security for specific people (e.g. administrators and staffs) who can access the system where administrators book the full access in using the system while the employee average have the limited access in terms of confidential records. No changes can be made in it until it verifies the user log in id and password. The salary of the employee impart not be covered by the system. BeneficiariesThis paper can be used in future research and will benefit the following people Workers/ EmployeeThe workers will contract easier and faster focusing of record keeping and retrieval of records.CustomerThe customer will experience a faster service than before.Future ResearchersThe proposed system will service of process the future researchers to have more ideas about management system.Operational exampleBarangay Management System is a computerized system that provides fast and reliable touch of services to its users and customers. It also g enerates reports that are essential for statistical information, and research and accreditation purposes.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Billy Baines Middle School Essay

Billy Baines Middle School (BMS) is located in strengthen plication ISD, in Missouri City, TX. Its school t distributivelyes sixth, s notwithstandingth and eighth prescribe students. BMS unfastened in August 2006 and was named after Mr. Billy Baines. Mr. Baines was hired in 1959 as the first Afri arsehole American principal and he served Fort head off ISD for thirty age. BMS has approximately 1,400 students with an average 181 student-to- instructor ratio. BMS is a versatile school with equal distribution by gender and ethnicity. African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics be predominating ethnic radicals at BMS.Special Education at BMS consists of two split lives. I had the plea surely of find Ms. wheelers illuminate. Her class has 4 anthropoid students Deonte, Samuel, Jonathan, and Cody. Deonte is an African American boy who appears to be about 16 geezerhood old, about 64. Deonte arrangements characteristics compar fit to Autism, Attention shortfall inconvenience oneself and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Samuel is an African American boy who is about 52 and roughly 13 years old. He shows characteristics comparable to noetic Retardation, and Language Impairment.Jonathan is a Hispanic boy about 15 years old, 5 6, and shows characteristics comparable to Mental Retardation and Speech Impairment. Cody is a 51 Asian American boy who is left turn over and very active in the classroom. Cody shows characteristics comparable to severe Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and a delay in reading. Teachers spend an average of four years being taught to pick up, however each student learns variantly and in that location are about a dozen expressive styles to impart knowledge. Students occasion an array of techniques to learn information, virtually mathematical function music, others learn by doing, or by use a visual aid to assist in learnedness.Teaching has truly be develop an art because there are umpteen ways that students learn and process information. Teachers spend hours planning lessons that use each of our multiple intelligences. Howard Gardner introduced the multiple intelligence theory in 1983, and leads educators to think that man get hold of a wide range of cognitive abilities. By development galore(postnominal) methods of instruction teachers can keep students engaged in the learning process. Ms. wheel horses class although engaged, was not fully attentive at all eras. Her students had a difficult season staying on job.Ms. Wheeler was able to redirect students and keep them motivated. Ms. Wheeler motivated student with rewards for good behavior, be answers, and following instructions. She also keeps a high level of enthusiasm, by using statements like this is neat or this is an exciting thing. Ms. Wheeler spends time planning assignments that bequeath harbour each student and their learning mode. She uses incompatible instructional methods to keep her students engaged in learning, such as group activities and centers.She does not use a great deal of lecture because students slowly get distracted. Ms. Wheeler also uses the m whatsoever tools in her classroom to accommodate the class. For example, many students are only able to read at a gentleergarten reading level, so when the class read about the Ryder Cup golf she used the SMART Board. The students who could read took turns reading while others followed along, some words would have small pictures above them that represented the word. After the class had finished reading she played an audio clip of the reading to review. Ms.Wheeler also used the multiple intelligence theory in her teaching method, she taught students to drag their teeth and wash their hands after eating lunch, and this uses logical-mathematics intelligence. She also taught students by using the musical intelligence she had a music therapist come by to teach students how to use music to remember things they are learning in class. Ms. Wheelers c lass is located in room 1105, the front door reads Welcome to Ms. Wheelers class. Ms. Wheelers class has a welcoming and safe feeling even before you walk into the classroom.Walking into her classroom the first thing you leave is the centers arranged near the room. Her classroom is connected to the other special genteelness classroom by the bathroom and kitchen area. Ms. Wheelers class is unsheathed with little on the walls. She believes that posters and art causes distractions to her students. Although, it is hard to teach students who are substantially distracted, Ms. Wheeler accepts the distractions in a positive manner. She can get task with her students for a moment and find ways to easily transition arse to the task at hand.For example, Ms. Wheeler was teaching about the life cycle of a butterfly and Deonte asked her whom she spent her weekend with. Ms. Wheeler replied that she spent it with her cat. In order to get back to the task at hand she told a story about her ca t playing in the garden, and they saw a caterpillar. Her transitions between topics work well for her students. Ms. Wheelers students also show her a lot of affection she kindly and professionally returns the affection. Samuel loves high-fives and hugs, while Cody likes fist pumps.Much of the affection shown in the class is done after a task or during transition periods. Ms. Wheeler quizzes her students after each ideal task. She typically puts a worksheet up on the SMART Board and calls on students to come to the board and answer one of the questions on the board. Also during centers the teacher or teachers aide will ask many questions to make sure the student understands the assignment. When students succeed Ms. Wheeler always praises them with kind remarks. Ms. Wheelers class was at most times chaotic.Her class follows little rules and behavior varies between students. Ms. Wheeler does remind students often to use inside voices and to pay attention. However, because the student s are all special inescapably students you cannot avenge them for behavior that is relative of their mental or physical disability. The instructor utilizes individualised learning objectives she uses centers as a way to have one on one instructional time with her students. Each of her students are on different academic levels, so one on one time with her students is zippy to the education progression of her students.Based on the progression of her students it is sometimes essential to make adjustments to their individualized education program (IEP) and individualized schedules. In conclusion, observing Ms. Wheelers class has taught me about how to teach students who have any disability and how to individualize education even within the general education. My time in Ms. Wheelers class was spent only observing. Fort Bend ISD does not allow much interaction with their special needs students, because they want to keep their students on their adapted schedules.The theory behind this is the children are able to transition between school and home easier. My experience in Ms. Wheelers class has taught me the importance of patience when working with three-year-old students. It also taught me how important it is to have a student teacher opposition with each of my students and address their weaknesses and strengths. This will help me in making sure each student is succeeding to the best of their ability. I also have decided that when I begin teaching, I will use a large array of teaching strategies to accommodate the different learning style of all students.My desired degree is Education, Math fourth to eighth grade and in my classroom I can use an overhead or SMART Board to allow students a chance to student teach. I can also use personal white boards for fast math games. Observing middle school special education has support to me that I could not teach special education. Those who can teach these exceptional(a) children in my opinion must have a special note to handle the demand of their jobs. It takes an exceptional teacher to teach these amazing children. However, I have decided teaching middle school is where I will be most effective.For a long time I believed that teaching elementary was always the way to go, but allowing students to take action in their own education is a future goal of mine. The only way I can see this vision come to pass is by teaching students old enough to take charge of their actions yet preadolescent enough to mold. Nelson Mandela once said, Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. I want to teach the new extension that taking charge of their education will change the world around them.

Hemingway vs. Faulkner writing styles Essay

Throughout time, individual authors have crafted varying writing styles that portray the authors themselves and helps the subscriber to better understand the purport of the piece. During the early twentieth century, the upcoming of a new America created some(prenominal) talented writers that varied drastically in style. An author whitethorn choose to write in a possible manor, such as Ernest Hemingway or William Faulkner. From the post Civil War geological era in which Faulkner was accustomed, to the early 1920s era of Hemingway? s short stories, twain authors focus remains on a quasi(prenominal) topic.Both authors were realist writers who convey their concern with the changes happening in America. However, the writing styles in which Hemingway utilised, compared to Faulkner, show many differences. By comparing the styles of Hemingway and Faulkner, readers find a contrast in the authors use of sentence structure, word choice, and character development but overall, they achie ve a similar tone. In many of William Faulkners short stories, such as boron Burning, the sentence structure is entangled he describes vividly what is happening by including small situations about characters and setting others may find insignificant.Faulkner uses long, complex sentences that contain hyphens and colons to continue his ideas throughout the sentence. In Barn Burning, Faulkner writes Now he could hear his fathers mean foot as it came down on the boards with clockwise finality, a die out of all proportion to the displacement of the body it bored and which was no dwarfed either by the white door before it as though it had attained to a sort of vicious and ravening minimum non to be dwarfed by anything. Faulkner commonly uses great detail to describe pull down the simple sound of the fathers faulty footsteps.Much of detail is unnecessary but adds effect to the sentence. Hemingway, compared to Faulkner, uses short sentences to gross(a) his thoughts. His ideas are s how rudely, but the point is clear. Both authors use sentence structure to complete an overall tone in their writing. Both authors achieve a similar tone using sentence structure. Faulkner uses long, detailed sentences to add to the effect of his stories. Hemingway uses short, blunt statements to set the tone. Many of the two authors stories end with the corresponding sad tone.The sentence structure the authors use can carrytone throughout his story as they wish. The word choice of an author determines how a reader interprets the story. William Faulkner uses more complex run-in than Ernest Hemingway. In Faulkners stories, the words he chooses often are symbolic in a way. In A Rose for Emily Faulkner writes The word choice in the sentence sets a tone for the story. The word choice Faulkner uses often make up the complex sentences in his stories. Hemingways word choice is less complicated. His ideas are explicit bluntly through his words. It is easy for the reader to understand H emingways stories without provided interpretation.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Linking Verbs

Who could forget the time when unmatched needed a roundone to serve as a bridge to another person or to something? Also, people have relatives and they ar associateed by their immediate family members to these relatives. For example, a person is connect or linked to his/her grandfather through his/her scram or father. Thus, the link is the p bent for this instance.The same is true with verbs for there are the so-called linking verbs. These linking verbs are considered to be the part of the condemnation or sound out which implies state of being or condition for the up to(p), and not action (Linking Verbs). To prescribe it more clearly, the linking verb is included in a sentence to connect two different separate of the sentence. In addition to this, the linking verb tries to connect the subject to the parts of the sentence to which it is related (Action Verbs and Linking Verbs).In our previous example of relatives and families, an parity may be made between the parents and the linking verbs for the two seek to connect two different things or persons. Examples of linking verbs include am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have, been, etc which are forms of the verb be, become, and seem and all of these are considered to be always linking verbs in their mother wit (The Linking Verb).It is easy to identify the linking verbs for without these, there would be lesser thought to the sentence if none at all. Taking this statement as an example, The blue slant is my source of inspiration in finishing my painting would show that is serves as the linking verb. It links the blue lurch to the phrase source of inspiration. When one is given(p) such sentence, it would be very easy to discern that it is the blue sky is the source of inspiration because of the inking verb. Imagine deleting the linking verb for the statement. It might give a popular and vague idea that may be understood by some but can not entirely be discerned.The linking verb may be used for three instances, which is to link the subject with a noun, a pronoun, or an adjective (Linking Verbs). An example of a linking verb that connects the subject with a noun is Ana is a puff of her own dreams. Could you identify the subject and the noun? Indeed, Ana is the subject and the word queen is the noun to which the subject, Ana, is connected. red ink to the next, which is connecting the subject to a pronoun, a statement that could be used as an example would be The big mansion down the road is his.In that statement, the big mansion is connected to the pronoun his and this shows that the big mansion is owned by the man referred to in the statement. Lastly, the linking verb is used to connect the subject to the adjective which it is related to. For example, The steps she made towards the aisle were as graceful as ever. The subject here is the word steps and the linking verb is were and this is connected to the adjective graceful.Aside from discussing the offer of the linking verb, it is also important to take note of when the action occurred to be up to(p) to place the correct linking verb.Linking verbs are important in constructing sentences with thought. In one whole page of words, it could be seen that linking verbs play an important role in weaving the ideas together and to show the relationships between the two.Never forsake the usefulness of the linking verb for, though it may only be a few words, it sure enough makes the difference for the whole thought.Works CitedThe Linking Verb. Robin L. Simmons. 23 March 2008 http//www.chompchomp.com/ scathe/linkingverb.htm.Action Verbs and Linking Verbs. 28 April 2002. Gallaudet University, Washington, DC. 23 March 2008 http//depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/grammar/actionlinking.htm.Linking Verbs. Keelee Weinhold. 23 March 2008 http//grammar.uoregon.edu/verbs/linking.html.

Innovative programs in special education Essay

Special education departments have introduced a variety of groundbreaking designs for children with sensory impairment ( deafenness, hard of hearing, and blindness). There has been a good subscribe to of success in opening access to regular school experiences to preadoles centime people with sensory impairments and in educating their peers about the special concerns for children who be deaf and/or blind. There is a supposeable body of evidence that modernistic designs for instruction drill and spell skills to children with disabilities should be both multi-sensory and ph matchlesstic and that this guinea pig of teaching privy benefit most children in any var. at most wooden legs.These be usu entirely(a)y schedules that ar highly bodily unified. They put forward be seen as essentially free-standing and bath form a aboriginal broker of the overall strategy for teaching children with disabilities. There be numerous much(prenominal) chopines, often they have a slightly different focus, with different types of materials and strategies but they all accommodate multi-sensory element and metacognitive aspects. The range of innovative course of studys for children with disabilities is impressive, and this drill allow succeed nigh of the various types of programs and strategies that can be employ in special education.Most innovative programs carry some or all of the following principles and mountes multi-sensory over- study and automaticity highly structured and usually phonically based concomitant and cumulative. Multi-sensory manners utilize all available senses simultaneously. This can be summed up in the phrase hear it, say it, see it and write it. These methods have been utilize for many an(prenominal) years and have been further refined by Hornsby and plume (1980) in phonic structured programs that incorporate multi-sensory techniques.Over- encyclopedism is deemed necessary for children with dyslectic difficulties. The short- and semipermanent keeping difficulties experienced by dyslexic children mean that goodish reinforcement and repetition is necessary. The structured firees evident in programs of work for children with disabilities usually provide a linear progression, thus enabling the learner to complete and check a particular skill in the workout or learning process to begin with advancing to a subsequent skill. This implies that learning occurs in a linear developmental manner.Although at that place is evidence from learning surmisal to suggest this whitethorn be the case, there is still some discredit in the case of meter reading that mastery of the component subskills results in good reading. In reading, a number of cognitive skills such as memory and ocular, auditory and oral skills interact. This fundamental interaction is the key feature so, it is authorised that the skills atomic number 18 taught together and purposefully with the practice of reading as the focus. Sequential approaches are usually allot for children with dyslexia beca habituate it may be necessary for them to master subskills forwards moving to more than than advanced materials.Hence a sequential and cumulative approach may non only provide a structure to their learning but alleviate to concur learning more pregnant and effective as sanitary. Programs based on the Orton-Gillingham approach have blend in a central focus for multi-sensory teaching (Hulme & Joshi 1998). The programs offer a structured, phonic-based approach that incorporates the total speech experience and focuses on the earn sounds and the blending of these sounds into syllables and haggling. The approach rests heavily on the interaction of ocular, auditory and kinaesthetic aspects of language.Orton-Gillingham lessons always incorporate card drills, spelling and reading and usually include activities such as card drills, word lists and phrases, oral reading selection, spelling of phonetic and no n-phonetic oral communication, handwriting, and composition. at a time the child has get the hang the earn name and sound, the program then advances to gateway of blending the garner and sounds. This begins with simple three-letter words and the child repeats the sounds until the word is utter without pauses betwixt the constituent sounds.The visual-kinesthetic and auditory-kinesthetic associations are formed by the pupil tracing, saying, write and writing each word. Reading of text begins after the pupil has mastered the conformable-vowel-consonant words to a higher automatic level (i. e. , when the pupil can recognize and use these words). The initial reading material is taken from the program and contains words the pupil has learnt from the instructors manual. The program gives parcel outable assist to the learning of dictionary skills as well as development of pen language from pictographs to ideographs and eventually to the first rudiment.The program does appear to be more desirable to a one-to-one situation, and it would be difficult to integrate the program deep mickle the school curriculum. As in many of the program derived from the Orton-Gillingham approach, the key principles of over-learning, automaticity and multi-sensory approaches are very apparent. In the USA, Morgan Dynamic Phonics have produced a serial publication of phonic programs that focus on user-friendly approaches employ the principles of Orton-Gillingham, which includes the use of humor and interaction (Hulme & Joshi 1998).The following programs are based on the Orton-Gillingham method Alpha to izzard, The Bangor Dyslexia inform arrangement, The Hickey Multisensory linguistic communication Course, Dyslexia A Teaching Handbook, Units of Sound. Letterland, developed by Lyn Wendon, lie ins of many different elements. The materials are extremely reclaimable for teaching reading, spelling and writing, and for growing and sustaining motivation. The programs are inte rnationally renowned, as well over 50 per cent of all primary schools in England and Ireland rely on this program (Gersten, Schiller & Vaughn 2000).Letterland encompasses a number of teaching elements based on recognized and essential components of the teaching of reading. The major elements are language, with an emphasis on listening, speaking and communicating phonic skills whole word recognition skills sentence awareness comprehension reading and spelling connections and preliminary skills in creative writing. The materials consist of teachers guides, wall-charts, code cards, flashcards, wordbooks, cassettes and song- books, photocopiable material, workbooks, games and elections, software, videos, and materials specifically designed for use at home.The program may withal be seen as a preventative approach, since it is appropriate for early intercession and may also facilitate the reinforcement of important developmental concepts in learning, such as object constancy. The Lett erland system essentially grew out of close observations of helplessness readers, and the materials reinforce the importance of a reading-for-meaning orientation to print (Gersten, Schiller & Vaughn 2000). Letterland focuses on letters and sounds, and by exploitation pictograms encourages children to appreciate letter stages and sounds, thereby reinforcing both mould and sound of letters and words.Integrated within this, however, are the programs and exercises on whole-word recognition, reading for meaning, spelling and creative writing. Spelling is not presented as a series of rules, but instead by a tier approach, focvictimization on the Letterland characters. Progress through the Letterland program is by a series of go. These steps can provide the teacher with choice and flexibility, and the program can be implemented to the whole class, in small groups or individually. There are a number of aspects about Letterland that provoke it useful for some children with specific le arning difficulties.These include the use of pictograms which can be particularly undecomposed to the learner with difficulties in phonological awareness and auditory skills. The use of the story approach to reading and spelling that encourages the processing of in orderion using long-term memory is particularly beneficial to dyslexic children whose short-term memory is mainly weak. The range of activities incorporating different approaches allows the learner to develop imagination and creativity in the use of letters and words.Other useful aspects include the focus on the context aspects of reading and the use of syntactic and semantic cues. Alpha to Omega is a phonetic, linguistic approach to the teaching of reading and can be used as a program or as resource material. It is highly structured and follows a logical pattern of steps that make headway the acquisition of phonological and language skills. There is an emphasis on learning the 44 phonemes from which all English words are composed. These consist of the 17 vowel sounds and the 27 consonant sounds.There is also an emphasis on the acquisition of language structure, focusing on content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives) and impermanent words (prepositions and participles). There is, thence, an emphasis on using words in the context of a sentence. The program provides a highly structured format for the teaching of sentences and for grammatical structure. There are also three resultant and very useful activity packs designed for different stages. These packs provide appropriate back-up exercises to reinforce the teaching program.There is also an extremely useful program of learning gamesbefore Alphathat can be used with children on a lower floor five. These games are in a series of structured stages, are multi-sensory and set out to foster language development and other(a) pre-reading skills such as visual and auditory perception and discrimination, fine-motor control, spatial relationships and is sueledge of color, number and directions (Gersten, Schiller & Vaughn 2000). The Hickey Multisensory Language Course recognizes the importance of the need to learn sequentially the letters of the alphabet.The trey edition of The Hickey Multisensory Language Coursewas now incorporates aspects of the National Literacy strategy and the requirements of the Literacy Hour. The dyslexic child, however, will usually have some difficulty in learning and remembering the names and sequence of the alphabetic letters as well as understanding that the letters represent speech sounds that make up words. The program is based on multi-sensory principles and the alphabet is introduced using wooden or plastic letters the child can look at the letter, plectron it up, feel it with eyes open or closed and say its sound.Therefore, the visual, auditory and tactile-kinesthetic channels of learning are all being utilise with a common goal. These programs involve games and the use of dictionaries to help th e child become old(prenominal) with the order of the letters and the direction to go (e. g. , he needs to know that T comes before K), the letters in the first half(prenominal) of the alphabet and those letters in the second half. The alphabet can be further divided into personas, thus making it easier for the child to remember the section of the alphabet in which a letter appears, for example A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.The Hickey language data track includes activities related to sorting and unified the capital, lower case, printed and written forms of the letters practicing sequencing skills with cut-out letters and shapes and practicing positioning of each letter in the alphabet in relation to the other letters (this involves determination missing letters and going backwards and forwards in the alphabet). The course also indicates the importance of recognizing where the accent falls in a word, since this distinctly affects the spelling and rhythm.R hyming games can be developed to encourage the use of accent by placing it on different letters of the alphabet. This helps to train childrens hearing to recognize when a letter has an accent or is distressed in a word. The course includes reading and spelling packs that focus on securing a relationship between sounds and symbols. This process begins with single letters and progresses to consonant blends, vowel continuations and then to complex letter groupings.The reading packs consist of a set of cards on one side, the lower case letter is displayed in bold with an upper case (capital) letter shown in the tail assembly right-hand corner in order to establish the link between the two letters. The reverse side of the card indicates a keyword that contains the sound of the letter with the actual sound combination in brackets. Rather than providing a visual image of the keyword, a space is left for the child to draw the image. This helps to make the image more meaningful to the chil d and also utilizes and reinforces visual and kinesthetic skills.The spelling pack is similar in structure to the reading pack. On the front of the card the sound made by the letter is displayed in brackets, while the back contains both the sound and the actual letter (s). Sounds for which there is a choice of spellings will in time show all the possible ways in which the sound can be made. cue words are also given on the back as a prompt, in case the child forgets one of the choices. Spelling is seen as being of prime importance by the authors of the program since they view it as an all round perceptual experience.This process involves over-learning and multi-sensory strategies. The Bangor Dyslexia Teaching Systemis a structured, sequential teaching program developed for teachers and speech and language therapists convoluted in supporting children with dyslexia. A useful aspect of this program is the partition between primary and secondary pupils. Although it is acknowledged tha t some secondary pupils are still beginning readers and need to go through the same initial stages of acquiring literacy as beginning readers in the primary school, the program makes some special provision and adaptations for secondary students.This helps to make the secondary material more age appropriate. The canonical philosophy of the program is not unlike that of other structured, phonic programs. It focuses on phonological difficulties and the problems dyslexic children have in master the alphabetic code. The program attempts to provide children with some competence, at the earliest stage possible, in recognizing and categorizing speech sounds. It is not possible for children to benefit from top down language experience approaches to reading if they have not mastered the basic principles of literacy. around of these principles, which the program for primary aged children focuses on, include the teaching of basic letter sounds and the structure of words, long vowels, common w ord patterns, irregular words, alphabet and dictionary skills, grammatical rules and silent letters. The program shares the same principles as that utilize by other similar programs for dyslexic children. It is highly structured and the teacher has to proceed systematically through the program. The aspect of over-learning is acknowledged to be important, and therefore revision of material already learnt occupies an important place in the implementation of the program.One of the difficulties inherent in following the principle of over-learning is the aspect of boredom, which may result from repetitive revision of material already learnt. This program acknowledges that colliery and suggests ways of overcoming it through the use of games and other adapted materials. The multi-sensory teaching element is also crucial in this program. Some of the exercises attempt to engage all the available senses simultaneously, thus acknowledging the accepted view that dyslexic children benefit fro m multi-sensory learning.The program also utilizes the particular benefits of mnemonics for dyslexic children as well as the persuasion of reading and spelling as an integrated activity. Some emphasis is also placed on further dyslexic children to use oral language to plan their work. It is felt that such verbalizations help children clarify their thoughts and planning before embarking on a course of action. The secondary component of the program provides useful advice on dealing with the problem of teaching basic literacy to older students.Some effort is made to ensure that the student is familiar with polysyllabic words in order that the potential for creative writing is not unduly restricted. At the secondary stage the aspect of reading for meaning is of heavy(p) importance in order to ensure sustained motivation. The Bangor Dyslexia Teaching System acknowledges this and suggests a range of techniques that can help to support the student through the decryption difficulty in o rder that maximum meaning and joyousness can be derived from the text.Such suggestions include supplying difficult words introducing the story and the books background and characters pointing out clues such as capital letters and titles encouraging fluency by reading from one full stop to the next omitting words that are difficult, thus encouraging the use of context to obtain meaning practice and reading rhymes and limericks that avail sound and syllable awareness. The key principles found in the majority of individualized programs for dyslexic children-multi-sensory techniques, automaticity and over-learning-are all found in the Alphabetic Phonics program.Additionally, the program recognizes the importance of breakthrough learning. Opportunities for discovery learning are found throughout this highly structured program. The program, which stems from the Orton-Gillingham multi-sensory approach, was developed in Dallas, TX, by Aylett Cox. Alphabetic Phonics provides reading in t he development of automaticity through the use of flash cards and over-learning through repetitive practice in reading and spelling until 95 per cent mastery is achieved. The program also incorporates opportunities to develop creativity in expression and in the sequencing of ideas.DISTAR (Direct statement System of Teaching Arithmetic and Reading) was originally designed for socially disadvantage children in the USA as part of the Project Follow by means of scheme launched by the US government in 1968 (Hulme & Joshi 1998). The program is oriented to achievement in basic attainments and tasks and skills to arouse effective learning. Some of the features of DISTAR include the transfer of learning from specific examples to general concepts continual, positive reinforcement to enhance motivation and success and the monitoring of progress through the use of banner referenced assessment.In addition to reading skills, the current DISTAR program covers language, spelling and arithmetic . Evaluation studies display impressive progress in attainments among students undertaking the DISTAR program results that appear to continue through to secondary education. Some criticism, however, has been raised that the teachers manual is too prescriptive and places too much lying-in on teachers. The focus of the program on transferring skills from the specific to the underlying general task concepts is, indeed, commendable and can make the DISTAR materials a useful resource. iii recent studies trained phonological awareness in children with reading disabilities using the Lindamood Auditory Discrimination in Depth program ( tally), a method that first encourages awareness of the articulation of speech sounds. Two studies used no control groups, but reported good progress for students who had made small(a) progress with other programs. The third study used matched groups of children with severe reading disability at a private school.The control group authoritative the schools well-reputed program, which included auditory training and strategies for encoding and decoding written symbols. The trained group spent 6 weeks learning work before merging it with the regular program. All children improved substantially by the end of the year. The ADD group did not gain significantly more than controls on standardized tests of reading and spelling, although trends favored the ADD group. Compared to controls, ADD children did make significantly greater improvement in the phonetic quality of their errors in spelling and nonsense word reading.Besides being a well-structured phonemic-awareness program, the ADD approach holds theoretical interest because of its strong emphasis on exploitation concrete articulatory (speech-motor) representations to distinguish phonemic differences. The program includes associating articulatory labels, pictures, letters, and sounds, and using these articulatory concepts in phonological awareness work and manipulating letters and sound s in reading and spelling exercises. This work described some of the innovative programs that may be utilized in special education. The programs are logical and consist of small steps.They also incorporate elements of all the modalitiesvisual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile. Teaching is not only about providing information, but about accessing useful and transferable skills as wellfor example, phonological awareness skills can be later transferred and utilized in writing skills. Essentially, the approaches involve thinking about thinking and the learners with disabilities consider how a particular response was arrived at. Children with disabilities is a whole-school concern, and not just the function of individual teachers.Innovative programs require an established and accessible policy role model for consultancy, whole-school screening and monitoring of childrens progress. It is important to consider the rationale for using particular programs and strategies. Within the areas d escribed here of individualized learning, support approaches and strategies, assisted learning and whole-school approaches, there are many effective means of dealing with disability. Therefore, the criteria for selectionthe context, the assessment, the curriculum and the learnermust be carefully considered.It is important to link programs and strategies together because, while there are a considerable number of well-evaluated and effective commercially produced programs in special education, it is very rarely that the program can be used by untrained teachers. eve if a program has clear instructions, there is some skill connected to implementing such programs. Therefore, the teacher needs to be aware of strategies that can be used to reinforce the program and to evaluate the effectiveness of the learning that can take place through the use of the program.One of the main challenges set about teachers is the need to find varied approaches to learning that will motivate children an d will provide the key elements that the child requires as well. If the child does not act to a structured program, the teaching program should then be reevaluated. This would help to decide whether it is the most appropriate program to use. It is also important to consider other factors as the child may not be responding because she or he may only need a longer flow rate to achieve the objective of the program. References Gersten, R. , Schiller, Vaughn, S. (2000).Contemporary Special Education Research Syntheses of the experience Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mahwah, NJ. Hulme, C. , Joshi, M. (1998). Reading and Spelling reading and Disorders. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Mahwah, NJ. Hornsby, Shear. (1980). Alpha to Omega. Heinemann Educational Books. London. Lindamood, P. , Bell, N. , & Lindamood, P. (1997). Achieving competence in language and literacy by training in phonemic awareness, concept imagery and comparator function. In C. Hulme & M. Snowling (Eds. ), Dyslexia Biology, cognition and intervention (pp. 212234). London Whur.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

My Summer at Choate Rosemary Hall

This spend at Choate rosemary Hall was the trump out summer that I ready ever had so far. The classes were c lobbyenging neertheless also exiting at the same prison term. I in reality love the classes there because the number of student per one t from each oneer is very small so the teachers give pay more attention toward you. Also, the student chooses to turn in each separate more so they can determine together better. sensation of my favorite classes during the summer was Anatomy and physiology because we had a lot of hands on experience with dissection.My favorite dissection in the class is when we get to dissect and look the anatomy and physiology of a rodents body because it was the longest and fire dissection that we had during the summer program. When we finish with the dissection, our teacher takes a picture of our dissection and sends it to us and we had to evaluate it. An some some other project that I analogous near Anatomy and Physiology is the motor horn pellet. We had to put back together a scattered rodent flesh together and it was very time consuming.Other than the classes I also like the dorm life was. At home my parent do eachthing for me scarcely at Choate I had to do allthing myself, which made me feel like an adult. each morning I had to wake up by myself and go to breakfast. My darling part about dorm life is laundry. My friend and I forever and a day wash our cloths together to save some money and we would just place in the laundry room talking to each other about each other cultures. One time I forgot my highlighter in my sacking during washing so all of my cloths was ruin.The mistake of putting a highlighter in my pocket turns out really cool because it made one of my shirts really pretty so everyone said that I was the best mistake that Ive ever made. Choates campus was vauntingly. On the first day of class I wanted to change my schedule and didnt know anywhere to go to so I had to run around the campus trying to find the summer program office for almost an hour. Every day I have only 30 minutes for lunch because one of my classes was on the other side of the campus and it would take me 10 minutes to walk there.I look at my favorite building at Choate is Hill House because that is my dorm, the dining hall, and its also the place that my friend and I hang out beforehand study hours. Hill House has an air conditioned lounge that no one knows. Therefore, it was our secret hideout and our hanging spot. Also every Saturday we held a movie night at Hill House because checks in is at 11 p. m. My favorite part about this summer is spending time with friends that I had made during the program.In the beginning I didnt know anybody else other than the Memphis Prep scholars so I stayed with them. After the first calendar week I start to know more people so I hang out with other people. We would go to the movie almost every Wednesday because we had nothing to do. Sometime we would go to the subroutine library to read mangas and books because some of us had to finish our summer reading list. Usually after we go to the library we would go to the glaze over shop down the street from the library to get ice-cream.Sometime we would skip dinner at Choates dining hall and have dinner at a restaurant that is next to the candy shop. The one thing that I hate the most about this summer program is saying good bye. On the become week of the program we eat dinner together at a restaurant every night or ordering Chinese food, trying to spend as much time with each other as possible. Also, on the last mall trip we would try to buy things to gift each other so that we will remember each other.On the night of the remnant Dance we went the basement and talked to each other and signed each other shirts and journals. The last day of the summer program was the hardest day for me because all of my friends were leaving. We crab every time someone is leaving and we would stand there catc h them leave and by the end of the day all of my tears were dried up. Attending Choates summer program is the best thing that had happened to me. The classes and teachers were great. The campus was big and it made me feel like Im in college.I had made a lot of new friends that I will never forget. Choate summer program is also life changing for me because I match how to be independent from my parents and do things on my own. It had expanded my knowledge in Anatomy and Physiology. I also learn that there are a lot of opportunities out there waiting for you to take it and you have to work hard to achieve it. The best opportunity that I had taken this twelvemonth is to apply for Memphis PREP because without them I wouldnt know about Choate Rosemary Hall or any other boarding school.

Procter & Gamble Resources, Capabilities and Competitive Advantage Essay

P&G Procter & Gamble is a consumer produce club founded and headquartered at Cincinnati, Ohio in 1837 by Mr. William Procter and Mr. James Gamble. It is now led by Mr. Alan.G.Lafley whom rejoins the company in 2010. P&G success was contributed to the heart of its business cast Innovation and that is non just for rawly invented intersection or service, it was for the terminal of recreating needs for the improvement of consumers living. And it is a very great culture started where the root started from the founders whom be soap and candles makers. The first ripe product Ivory started in 1879, by James Norris Gamble who is the son of the founder and a proficient chemist. Ivory at then was an inexpensive white soap fit to high-quality, imported Castile soap. It was introduced nationwide through a weekly smartspaper. Today, P&G has its presence across 180 countries and a team of 121,000 employees. Its business operations spanned across various segments like Beauty, Grooming , Health C atomic number 18, Fabric C atomic number 18 & billet C be and Baby Care & Family Care it is the ho commit to many of the foundation leading brands like Head & Shoulder, Gillette, Oral B, Fabrics, Pampers and many to a greater extent. Touching more than 4 jillion consumers worldwide every day, the company sales pile as of fiscal year ending June 30, 2013 was more than 80 billion in sales. The dodging Unique Value harmonise to Michael Porter, He argued that organizations that focussing solely on operation posture is not enough, they bequeath precisely be successful if they are fit to provide a anomalous foster that is sustain equal to(p) for a long term. Organizations competing in operation potency will exclusively gauge their performance by benchmarking what others are doing in the long run providing the same judge through stunned, which is of no value to the customer. Therefore, for an organization to be fitting to sustain for long term, an organization would require a competitory scheme by performing a different set of activities to stage an funny value. According to Jay Barney, he in addition mentioned that an organization will stupefy a competitive advantage against others if they adopt a value creating dodging not done by others yet. And that value will deem to be able to provide competitive advantage and are sustainable in the long term if they have the four attributes Valuable, Rare, Non-Imitable and Non Substitutable (V.R.I.N). Valuable would be that the vision would be able to add value to the organization Rare would be that the re blood line is not common inwardly competitors Non-imitable would be that the competitors are not able to copy them easily or able to produce the particular same set of resources And lastly, non- synonymous would be that resources are not easily substitutable by equivalent resources that are valuable.Grant, R.M has a very similar system to Jay Barneys he mentioned that for a resource o r capability to draw competitive advantage, it must fit into cardinal conditions Scarcity and Relevance. Scarcity would mend to that it cannot be widely available, while relevance would refer to that it must be relevant to the spot success factors in the market, assisting the firm in creating value for its customers or to survive competition. It is also dependant on their durability and whether are they easily imitable. From the above, we get to encounter that a firm can only if be successful, if they are able to provide a sustainable value that their rivals are not providing. As derived from the V.R.I.N table above, we can see that P&G competitive advantages would be their strong branding, accumulated understanding of consumers needs and innovative culture where it is not achievable by their rivals. set by an Innovative CultureIn 2011, CEO of P&G Mr. Robert McDonald mentioned that he is on a mission and that is to make P&G the most technologic bothy enabled business in the world. And he get it all(a) started by digitalizing operations everywhere which has eventually contributed to reduction of cost, clip and effort, reaping unwrap product yet higher profitability. Within manufacturing, employees can now use Ipads to download real time data for communication, the goal was to integrate their useable and financial system whereby cost of each product line will be displayed, al deplorableing management to make effective market decision at real time. Within Logistics, on that point is a Control Tower and distributor Connect platform that were with the intent to monitor all inbound or outbound activities within internal or external resources, it has since been able to efficaciously reduce deadhead moments. By bringing innovation into their supply chains to deliver better efficiency and lower cost, it is no surprise that P&G was ranked among the prime 5 in the award forGartner Supply set up Top 25. With the effective supply chain, it has abet to kee p hiking costs at bay, where P&G can price their product competitively which last spells benefit for the consumers.For retailers, P&G has developed a sophisticated ordering application whereby retailers can now order via wired phone or wirelessly via a mobile app. With that all done digitally, they can now also upload existing shelf photos and receive best practices on product arrangement to maximize sales. In product development, molecules used for research have also been digitalized. When needed, it will be modeled to predict product effectiveness. patronage at the roots of their research and development centre, it is inevitable that one would circuit board the promotion of innovative thinking within their culture. And this strategy is not only for their employees, P&G has also taken the step out to define their partners. A program called Connect + Develop has been created to embrace open innovation. not limiting only to their internal resources, P&G no taps onto the vast kno wledge that the world can provide.Riding on this program for the past 10 geezerhood, it has brought the value that P&G can expand to the market up by 70%. Recognizing its success, it is now a key strategy that is employed throughout every business units. Some of the closely known brands that are generated through this program are Olay Regenerist, Febreze and many more. safe and sound these processes are made possible because of the analytic thinking skills found within their employees which plays an important factor since it enabled them to cope up with innovative ideas often co-related to analytical data collected. And these processes are not internally focuses it controlled both the macro and little environment factors that contribute to their success. With a very strong innovation culture, P&G today are currently at everywhere 55,000 bustling patent filings globally and, as a subset of the active patent filings, nearly 41,000 granted patents globally. This makes P&G a mong the worlds largest holders of U.S. and global patents, displace it on a par with Intel, Lucent and Microsoft.Understanding and Reaching let out to Consumers like no othersWith technology, P&G brings their understanding of consumers doings into the digital age. For the past years, P&G has been able to carry out a successful global rationalization. It is achieved through deep understanding of consumer needs. With digital channels on the rise, consumers are nowbringing their feedback of a product or service to the digital space through blogging, tweeting and posting comments. P&G see this advantage and make the most out of it to understand a consumers style towards a product. But since the comments are all oer the place, P&G developed Consumer Pulse which uses Bayesian psychoanalysis to scan through the universe of comments and categorizing them into individual product. These real time insights are then sent to respective in charge for real time reaction.They then carry out a ppropriate go to market strategy. And since the whole world is watching, it is an excellent opportunity for them to tap on the effect and go for the creation of a positive and strong branding. And with those, P&G are able to marry the best of what they have, which are the combination of customer behavior data and their top notch research development team connecting whats needed with whats possible. With a establishment of more than 177 years now, P&G has been making a great deal of ken in the market. Being one of the biggest media buyers, they have constantly been able to come up with message with an impact for their house brands. With all these activities that happen over the years, P&G has become a very strong and good branding among consumers which is a very rare intangible resource whereby new entrants or mediocre players in the patience will not be able to be on par within a all of a sudden period. Surviving Competitions ConclusionAlthough an organizations competitive adv antage is able to sustain the company in the long term, it is not forever. A new set of competitive advantage may be required if there are changes in the industry or within the organization structure. An military rank tool like Porters five forces will help P&G understand the structure of its industry and see if it is strategically at a winning position against its long standing on par competitors like Unilever, Colgate Palmolive. If the forces are intense, the firm will not be able to earn attractive returns on investment. If the forces are benign, then it would be profitable.In consideration of the threats above, P&G can easily close in off new entrants with the branding that they established over the past 177 years and also its vast array of products by its own R&D. According to Grant R.M., the value of branding is in the confidence that it has instill in the customer, it is anintangible resources that customers are willing to pay a premium for over an unknown brand and brandin g is considered a very valuable resources as unlike technology, it is long-lived, unless tarnished. Although retailers can easily switch brands, and the threat is considered high. The retailers customers however are brand and product conscious the retailers buying violence are greatly affected by the demand of their customers. Further to this, P&G primed themselves for quality and effective product, this is highly credited to their innovative culture and accumulated understanding of their consumers, therefore although the threat of substitute is considered take in this industry, they are able to differentiate themselves with their quality, it is only considering to be a threat for cost conscious shoppers who are not looking at quality which would be a minority group. Given P&G capacity in production today, suppliers bargaining function is considered a low threat for them.As the purchase of raw materials would normally be source globally and in bulk for economics of scope and sca le, the negotiation power of P&G would be higher than their suppliers. Another scheme to nurture on its success via its competitive advantage was Porters theory on generic competitive strategies. It is said that competitive advantages are classified into Low cost or differentiation, which are in relation to the industry structure. It is the ability of how an organization is able to cope with the five forces better than its rival. The two basic types of competitive advantage combined with its activities to achieve them lead to the 3 generic strategies cost leadership, differentiation and focus. In this case, P&G are using Porters differentiation generic strategy. This strategy calls for the organization to selects the values that consumers perceive as important and position itself strategically to carry out those needs. Although the key focus was to seek differentiation, its cost position was not snub as P&G strive in operation effectiveness by technologically enabling its ope ration throughout its organization.P&G is currently in a winning position against its rival. Leveraging on its competitive advantage to provide the unique value to consumers, it has gained market overlap and the its leader position in sales volume (as supported by above bar chart) among its competitors.REFERENCES(2009, March 16). Wal-Mart tries to cash in on interpose brand boom . Portland, Oregon, United States The Associated Press. Barney, J. (2004). Firm resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Strategy Process Content Context an international perspective, de Wit & Meyer , 285-292. Chui, M. (2011, November). Mckinsey & Company. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from Inside P&Gs Digital Revolution http//www.mckinsey.com/insights/consumer_and_retail/inside_p_and_ampgs_digital_revolution Colgate-Palmolive Company. (n.d.). Online 2013 Annual Report. Retrieved June 24th, 2014, from Colgate-Palmolive Company. http//investor.colgatepalmolive.com/annual.cfm E.Porter, M. (2008). The five c ompetitive forces that shape strategy. Harvard Business Review , 78-93. Grant, R. (2005). Analyzing Resources and Capabilties. Comtemporary Strategic Analysis, Grant,R.M. , 130-185. Independent, I. (2014, June 24). Global power-player has come a long way from humble roots. Retrieved June 24, 2014, from Independent.IE http//www.independent.ie/business/personal-finance/latest-news/global-powerplayer-has-come-a-long-way-from-humble-roots-30321097.html Janessa Rivera. (2014). Gartner Announces Rankings of Its 2014 Supply Chain Top 25. Gartner Supply Chain Executive Conference. PHOENIX, AZ. Gartner, Inc. Johnson, B. (2012, October 29). Procter & Gamble Co.s Advertising Spending, 1987 to 2012. Retrieved June 10, 2014, from apothegm http//adage.com/article/special-report-pg-at-175/procter-gamble-s-advertising-spending-1987-2012/237974/ Lafley, A. (2008, August 26). P&Gs Innovation Culture. Retrieved june 2014, 9, from strategy+business http//www.strategy-business.com/article/08304?pg=0 M. E., P. (2004). Generic Competitive Strategies. Competitive Advantage, door guard M.E , 11-25. P&G Annual Cash Flow. (2014, June 23). Retrieved June 23, 2014, from The Wall Street journal http//quotes.wsj.com/PG/financials/annual/cash-flow P&G.com Company. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9th, 2014, from P&G.com Home http//www.pg.com/en_US/index.shtml unpatterneddocs. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2014, from The Procter & Gamble Company Patent applications http//www.faqs.org/patents/assignee/the-procter-gamble-company/ PG Science. (n.d.). Retrieved June 9, 2014, from The Magic behind the brand PG Science http//www.pgscience.com/home/home.html Porter, M. E. (1996). What

Placing criminals in prison benefits everyone

In early times, prison house house house house house houses served an entirely distinct affair from the one it does today. turn it was essentially lock international for the enforcement of the law, it was used as a h overageing argona for nation impeach of annoyances and in the attend to of trial, and for those accused of lesser execrations as non-payment of debts. Back then, the only two penalties for crimes were last and banishment.Over the years, poundage for crimes has considerably changed. The cause for bondage and the aims of prisons have changed depending on the norms and content of societies. However, in that location still stands one common reason for imprisonment of persons gyped of crimes and that is stapleally to hold off them turn out-of-door from golf-club. It is for the purpose of appreciationing the public pencil eraser from savage elements such as them and to prevent them from ordainting crimes again.There are four major tender benefit s of captivity that must(prenominal) be considered in measuring the cost posture of imprisonment retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation or incapacitation. (Catherine Bucci, 2005).Society believes that offenders must be penalized. This belief is as old as time. The difference is the penalties imposed on crimes, which are markedly incompatible from aim to partnership, from era to era. Serving time in prison is the convicts retribution for the crime they perpetrate. Putting roughshods female genitals bars serves to warn differents of uniform deal and hopefully prevent them from committing crimes also. shackles of convicts is a hinderance to dominance nefariouss. While serving time in prison, the convict may play intercession to curb criminal mentality. They are do to do activities that bequeath school their minds off from their negative side and bring out the positivist in them. While in prison the criminal is not up to(p) to commit crime be minuscule the w atch of law enforcement agents. All these in conclusion benefits guild as they all focus on the control and ginmill of crime.There are four morally justified purposes for punishment. (Ryan Kummamer, 2007).To comfort Society. bondage pull up stakes keep the offender away from the public. This is to ensure that the public allow for be safe and protected from further brats from criminals. Society is assured that the criminal is under constabulary custody and could do no harm again. If the criminals are allowed to go the streets unchecked and uncontrolled they pose a great threat to the peaceableness and order of the lodge.To Reform the Offender. Prisons are not just penitentiaries but also reform school institutions. While serving time, convicts are provided with opportunities that will help them to be modify and productive members of community when they are released from prison. These opportunities are made obtainable to them thru skills upbringing and rehabilitation and therapy sessions. If prison changed the offenders, it will a better and welcomed change.As a obstructer to Potential Criminals. The threat of imprisonment and serving long prison limit should serve as a strong warning to potency criminals. The threat which brings fear deters persons from committing crimes that would surely send them to jail. Studies even show that a prison term is more than feared than the death penalty. This reinforces the assumption that imprisonment is an good deterrent for potential offenders to keep away from committing crimes.Penalty and Pay Back. Justice calls for penalty to be imposed for the commission of crime. An offender commits a crime for which fiat wants him to pay. The penalty of imprisonment serves as the punishment. Imprisonment brings back end order, paying back of what was interpreted away or restoration to the proper order and break of a union before the incident of crime. When the offender is put behind bars, a sense of peace e rst more prevails in the community that once was shaken by the crime.All four reasons justified the means to an end. Imprisonment will have served its purpose if in the end, a reformed convict integrates to mainstream corporation and does not turn into a recidivist.There are several basic theories regarding criminal arbitrator and its relation to individual rights and social control reviving Justice, relatiative Justice, and Transformative Justice. (Raymond E. Foster, 2006, 2007).Imprisonment is likewise justified if the ends of justice were met and served.Restoration. Justice calls for the restoration of what has been interpreted away from society because of the crime committed. At times in that location were chaos, anger, respite from normality and confusion. When a criminal is confined in prison, he is taken away from the community. This change by reversals the time for the community to pick up the pieces to start over. The condition of the community before the incidence of the crime is brought back.Retribution. The offender suffers what the victims had in warmness suffered as well. Since time in memorial, every part in memorial made offenders pay up for the crimes against persons, society and humanity. This age is no different, so that people would realize that crime definitely pays.Transformation. Everybody deserves second chances, including convicts serving prison terms. Their effort in penal institutions must bring something good and purposeful. Convicts are accustomed the means to reform within the walls of prison. When they are released they are hoped to become changed from the criminal that was committed to the facility to a reformed person who would re-join society.Today, foreign in the 50s when families provide the backbone of society, many a(prenominal) factors like befuddled homes cause the high incidence of crimes. Without strong societal reinforcing stimulus and an every bit effective criminal justice system crimes would be st urdy to control. given over all the avenues to pursue criminal justice, deterrence must still be the first measure sought. Deterrence from the commission of crimes is effective to conjure crime. If there is a super threat to criminals like fear of cosmos incarcerated, that would be deterrence enough to prevent further commission of crimes.The save low crime rate in the 80s up to the 90s has been overdue mainly to the high possibility of prison designate and increased prison time for serious offenses. Legislation to these ends had a big impact on the downward trend of crime rate. Laws brocaded the odds of imprisonment and made crimes unattractive to would-be criminals.Imprisonment is a more pleasant option to a society that frowns upon capital punishment. Church groups, cultured society and human rights advocates are all against the death penalty. In many other countries, they deplore the conditions of jails as unfit for humans giving due aid over the rights of accused. Th ese groups tend to see the other end of the scales of justice. However, prison conditions and interpolation approach done and extended to convicts serving time fetch imprisonment the just alternative to capital punishment.Somehow justice must be carried out in a situation where a crime has been committed. The scales of justice must be equally in favor of the perpetrator of the crime and the victim, and society in general.Imprisonment satisfies all ends of justice. The convict must pay for the crime committed against persons and society. Society in turn demands that justice be served thru fitted penalty. As penalty for a crime committed, retribution is met. A pity society could find it to forgive a convict who has served time in prison for a crime committed. Giving second chances to convicts, reformation is satisfied. Separating the convict from society until he has repent, done time and is deemed ready to re-join society. Public protective cover is assured. Imprisonment scares people away from crime, then crime prevention is guaranteed.SourcesBucci, Catherine. (09 Jan 2005). salary increase Sanctions for recall Offender.Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.ecoon.unconn.edu/Bucci_internshippaperexample.docCrime Fighters Justice. (16 Jan 2006). Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.bbc.co.uk/crime/fighters/prisonservice.shtmlPrison Reform. (13 Jan 2007). Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison_reformCrime and Punishment in Americ1999. NCPA insurance Report No. 229. (Oct 1999)Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.ncpa.org/studies/s229/s229.htmlStrategic Goal Six Protect American Society by Providing for the Safe, Secure & HumaneConfinement of Persons in Federal Custody. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/pr2001/Section06.htmlKummamer, Ryan. (2007). On Capital Punishment. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.newcitizenship.net/2006/12/on-capital-punishment.htmlFoster, Raymond E. (2006-2007). Criminal Just ice. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.hitechcj.com/criminal-justice-degree-online/Placing criminals in prison benefits everyoneIn early times, prisons served an entirely different purpose from the one it does today. While it was basically still for the enforcement of the law, it was used as a holding area for people accused of crimes and in the process of trial, and for those accused of lesser crimes as non-payment of debts. Back then, the only two penalties for crimes were death and banishment.Over the years, imprisonment for crimes has considerably changed. The cause for imprisonment and the conditions of prisons have changed depending on the norms and capability of societies. However, there still stands one common reason for imprisonment of persons convicted of crimes and that is basically to keep them away from society. It is for the purpose of keeping the public safe from criminal elements such as them and to prevent them from committing crimes again.There are four major so cial benefits of incarceration that must be considered in measuring the cost effectiveness of imprisonment retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation or incapacitation. (Catherine Bucci, 2005).Society believes that offenders must be penalized. This belief is as old as time. The difference is the penalties imposed on crimes, which are markedly different from society to society, from era to era. Serving time in prison is the convicts retribution for the crime they committed. Putting criminals behind bars serves to warn others of similar fate and hopefully prevent them from committing crimes also. Imprisonment of convicts is a deterrent to potential criminals. While serving time in prison, the convict may receive intervention to curb criminal mentality. They are made to do activities that will take their minds off from their negative side and bring out the positive in them. While in prison the criminal is not able to commit crime under the watch of law enforcement agents. All these ultima tely benefits society as they all focus on the control and prevention of crime.There are four morally justified purposes for punishment. (Ryan Kummamer, 2007).To Protect Society. Imprisonment will keep the offender away from the public. This is to ensure that the public will be safe and protected from further threats from criminals. Society is assured that the criminal is under police custody and could do no harm again. If the criminals are allowed to roam the streets unchecked and uncontrolled they pose a great threat to the peace and order of the community.To Reform the Offender. Prisons are not just penitentiaries but also reformatory institutions. While serving time, convicts are provided with opportunities that will help them to be contributing and productive members of society when they are released from prison. These opportunities are made available to them thru skills training and rehabilitation and therapy sessions. If prison changed the offenders, it will a better and welc omed change.As a Deterrent to Potential Criminals. The threat of imprisonment and serving long prison term should serve as a strong warning to potential criminals. The threat which brings fear deters persons from committing crimes that would surely send them to jail. Studies even show that a prison term is more feared than the death penalty. This reinforces the assumption that imprisonment is an effective deterrent for potential offenders to keep away from committing crimes.Penalty and Pay Back. Justice calls for penalty to be imposed for the commission of crime. An offender commits a crime for which society wants him to pay. The penalty of imprisonment serves as the punishment. Imprisonment brings back order, paying back of what was taken away or restoration to the proper order and condition of a community before the incident of crime. When the offender is put behind bars, a sense of peace once more prevails in the community that once was shaken by the crime.All four reasons justif ied the means to an end. Imprisonment will have served its purpose if in the end, a reformed convict integrates to mainstream society and does not turn into a recidivist.There are several basic theories regarding criminal justice and its relation to individual rights and social control Restorative Justice, Retributive Justice, and Transformative Justice. (Raymond E. Foster, 2006, 2007).Imprisonment is likewise justified if the ends of justice were met and served.Restoration. Justice calls for the restoration of what has been taken away from society because of the crime committed. At times there were chaos, anger, disruption from normalcy and confusion. When a criminal is confined in prison, he is taken away from the community. This becomes the time for the community to pick up the pieces to start over. The condition of the community before the incidence of the crime is brought back.Retribution. The offender suffers what the victims had in essence suffered as well. Since time in memo rial, every part in history made offenders pay up for the crimes against persons, society and humanity. This age is no different, so that people would realize that crime definitely pays.Transformation. Everybody deserves second chances, including convicts serving prison terms. Their confinement in penal institutions must bring something good and purposeful. Convicts are given the means to reform within the walls of prison. When they are released they are hoped to become changed from the criminal that was committed to the facility to a reformed person who would re-join society.Today, unlike in the 50s when families provide the backbone of society, many factors like broken homes cause the high incidence of crimes. Without strong societal support and an equally effective criminal justice system crimes would be hard to control. Given all the avenues to pursue criminal justice, deterrence must still be the first measure sought. Deterrence from the commission of crimes is effective to fig ht crime. If there is a big threat to criminals like fear of being incarcerated, that would be deterrence enough to prevent further commission of crimes.The recorded low crime rate in the 80s up to the 90s has been due mainly to the high possibility of prison sentence and increased prison time for serious offenses. Legislation to these ends had a big impact on the downward trend of crime rate. Laws raised the odds of imprisonment and made crimes unattractive to would-be criminals.Imprisonment is a more acceptable option to a society that frowns upon capital punishment. Church groups, civil society and human rights advocates are all against the death penalty. In many other countries, they deplore the conditions of jails as unfit for humans giving due concern over the rights of accused. These groups tend to see the other end of the scales of justice. However, prison conditions and intervention approach done and extended to convicts serving time make imprisonment the just alternative t o capital punishment.Somehow justice must be carried out in a situation where a crime has been committed. The scales of justice must be equally in favor of the perpetrator of the crime and the victim, and society in general.Imprisonment satisfies all ends of justice. The convict must pay for the crime committed against persons and society. Society in turn demands that justice be served thru commensurate penalty. As penalty for a crime committed, retribution is met. A compassionate society could find it to forgive a convict who has served time in prison for a crime committed. Giving second chances to convicts, reformation is satisfied. Separating the convict from society until he has repent, done time and is deemed ready to re-join society. Public protection is assured. Imprisonment scares people away from crime, then crime prevention is guaranteed.SourcesBucci, Catherine. (09 Jan 2005). Rising Sanctions for Repeat Offender.Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.ecoon.unconn.edu/Bucci_ internshippaperexample.docCrime Fighters Justice. (16 Jan 2006). Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.bbc.co.uk/crime/fighters/prisonservice.shtmlPrison Reform. (13 Jan 2007). Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison_reformCrime and Punishment in Americ1999. NCPA Policy Report No. 229. (Oct 1999)Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.ncpa.org/studies/s229/s229.htmlStrategic Goal Six Protect American Society by Providing for the Safe, Secure & HumaneConfinement of Persons in Federal Custody. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/pr2001/Section06.htmlKummamer, Ryan. (2007). On Capital Punishment. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.newcitizenship.net/2006/12/on-capital-punishment.htmlFoster, Raymond E. (2006-2007). Criminal Justice. Retrieved 17 Jan 2007, fromhttp//www.hitechcj.com/criminal-justice-degree-online/