Sunday, November 10, 2019
Improved and reliable car technology Essay
This means it is much more appealing to travel, maybe to further places on the motorway network as it is so easy. This has an impact on travel and tourism as more people are willing to travel. Air Travel. Ã Dr. Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine. Each worked separately and knew nothing of the otherÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Hans von Ohain is considered the designer of the first operational turbojet engine. Frank Whittle was the first to register a patent for the turbojet engine in 1930. Hans von Ohain was granted a patent for his turbojet engine in 1936. However, Hans von OhainÃ¢â¬â¢s jet was the first to fly in 1939. Frank WhittleÃ¢â¬â¢s jet first flew in 1941. Ã The development of pressurised cabins meant that there was a supply of air which then they could fly higher and get out of the troposphere where all the weather conditions affected the flight. As without the pressurised cabin, flights couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t go above in to the stratosphere, into the thin air as there would be no air supply. This meant flights are more enjoyable and quicker, therefore more appealing to the public. Aircrafts can now reach heights of 30,000- 40,000 ft, whereas they could only reach heights of 15,000 ft. The Boeing 747, also popularly known as the jumbo jet, is the second largest passenger airliner after Airbus A380, but it remains the largest aircraft in commercial service. The 747 was born out of the explosion of the popularity of air travel in the 1960s. The enormous popularity of the Boeing 707 had revolutionised long distance travel in the world, and had began the concept of the global travel made possible by the jet revolution. The original design was a full length double decker. However, following issues with proposed evacuation routes, this idea was scrapped in favour of a wide-body design. Concorde 001 took off for the first test flight from Toulouse on March 2nd 1969 and the first supersonic flight followed on October 1st. As the flight program of the first development aircraft progressed as planned, 001 started off on a sales and demonstration tour beginning on September 4th 1971. Not until June 2nd 1972 did Concorde 002 follow suit with a sales tour of the Middle and Far East. Concorde 002 made the first visit to the United States in 1973, landing at the new Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to commemorate its opening. Technological features. Many technological features common in the early 21st century airliners were first used in Concorde For speed optimization, Concorde featured: Ã Double-delta shaped wings Ã Thrust-by-wire engines, ancestor of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s FADEC controlled engines. Ã Droop nose section for good landing visibility For weight-saving and enhanced performance, Concorde featured: Ã Fully electrically controlled analogue fly-by-wire flight controls systems. I got this picture from: http://www. nationmaster. com/encyclopedia/Concorde * Computerised checking-in and baggage handling also makes going on holiday so much easier and more appealing for people to go on holiday. This therefore has an impact on travel and tourism as people are more willing and confident to go on holiday as everything is so much quicker and easier. Ã Sophisticated air traffic control makes going on a plane even safer as technological developments have vastly improved. This therefore gives people more confidence in flying and therefore more people do. I got this table from: http://www. air-quality-management. co. uk Ã This table shows how the quantity of people using air travel has increased since 1970. It has predicted the amount of passengers from 2010 to 2030. It also shows an increase. This is because it is becoming more popular to fly and as it is more comfortable, entertainment on the flight and itÃ¢â¬â¢s much quicker which makes it so much more appealing to fly. * The growth of regional airports has also increased due to the amount of people wanting to travel abroad. Airports have many facilities which make it easier for the public. There are monorails and coaches to the airport from the car parks that make it so much more accessible to get the airport. This is why the travel and tourism industry is increasing as everything including the facilities and ability to travel is much more efficient and easier. Conclusion. The impact air travel has had on the travel and tourism industry is significant. This is because since the 2nd world war planes have become bigger as so they can hold more people making flights cheaper. This means more people can afford to go on holiday to far destinations and also have the better quality journey. Therefore air travel has affected travel and tourism greatly. Sea Travel. * Sea travel has changed since the 2nd world war from the main form of global passenger transport to shorter-journey car ferries and cruises. This is because people use to go on a ferry to America because flying was very uncomfortable as technology was only developing. But when the jet engine and pressurised cabin were developed the need to go on the ferry was decreased as people could fly over instead, taking less time. This meant the ferry was not needed and so it became a cruise instead of like a `bus service`. * Ferries have become more popular due to the capacity of people they can get on them. This means that prices are reduced so it is more affordable for more people. Also as car ownership has increased the need for ferries which can hold cars is more important. The ferries such as the sea France Rodin and the Brittany ferries are good examples in which can take vehicles and loads to destinations. Each route has been specifically designed to save drivers large amounts of time and mileage, making us the logical choice of the professional. I got this picture and map from: http://www. brittanyferriesfreight. co. uk/ These are the offers Brittany Ferries include: Direct and cost-effective routes Ã More mileage-saving departure ports and destinations Ã A personal service offering individually tailored solutions. From abnormal loads to small vans Top quality food and on-board facilities This map shows where the ferry travels to. The wide choice of sailings enables people to choose the port most convenient for them, keeping driving to a minimum. The arrival ports also offer easy access to the major road networks in France and Spain, making driving on the continent easier. Ro-Ro ferries are the idea in which you take your vehicle onto the ferry and then when you get to the destination you can just `roll off`. This made it much easier and convenient as itÃ¢â¬â¢s a simple concept to use. Sir Christopher Cockerell was the inventor of the hovercraft in 1956. The hovercraft could carry twice as many passengers and vehicles, but this meant it was slower. The hover craft was replaced by the invention of the sea-cats. The sea cat would as it gets faster lift making the journey quicker. Compared to conventional ferries, the sea cat fleet of smaller, faster vessels results in fast loading and unloading Ã¢â¬â coupled with the fact that all of the cross-Channel services are run from dedicated ports, makes travelling on the sea cat fast and hassle free experience. I got this picture from Google search on images under `sea cats`. Ã An issue which meant Health and Safety issues were considered was the landmark disaster of the Herald of free Enterprise. It capsized in the approaches to the Belgian port of Zeebrugge en route to Dover in England at 7. 05pm local time on March 6, 1987. At least 150 passengers and 38 members of the crew lost their lives, most inside the ship, from hypothermia, in the frigid water. The bow doors had been left open after departure and water flooded the car decks. The tragedy led to new safety regulations in the British ferry Industry. Conclusion. Sea travel has dramatically improved over the years since the 2nd world war where both the journey and safety wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t good enough. Now ferries are very much more appealing to the public and offer a wide range of services. This means the public can Computerised Booking Systems. Before there was a computerised booking system, travel agents used to work with wall charts. On these charts they had lists of available different resorts and airlines. People had to write out tickets which werenÃ¢â¬â¢t very efficient. Today travel agents have a 1/4 of a million pounds worth of computer systems which they can use the website to gather useful information, quickly and efficiently. The technology also means travel agents such as Sunvil can make databases of their customerÃ¢â¬â¢s history in holidays. Another recent technology that has helped to increase the efficiency of booking a holiday is a global distribution system. This consists of a speedy dedicated-line access, a huge database of details including accommodation, travel, hotels and car hire. It is also global. This means the sales process is easier and more efficient. Global distribution Systems include: Worldspan. Worldspan provides worldwide electronic distribution of travel information, Internet products and connectivity, and e-commerce capabilities for travel agencies, travel service providers, and corporations. Ã Worldspan system provides approximately 16,000 travel agencies with travel data and booking capabilities for hundreds of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s leading travel service suppliers. Worldspan employ 2,500 people which show that the market is massive. It proves how big travel and tourism has become and how it is increasing. Amadeus. Amadeus offers a service in which the public can suit their holidays to themselves. This means information comes from all over the world to give the costumers the best chance of getting the holiday they want. The electronic information on Amadeus contains flight details, accommodation and dates in which are available. There are many online travel agents, these include: Expedia. Expedia is a virtual online travel agent which means you can book everything from you flight to hotel. Their aim is to replace high street travel agents. Ã Expedia also works with a GDS to get the results they want for their costumers. This has a booming impact on travel and tourism as it is so much easier to book a holiday as everything can be catered for, for your own personal needs. Sunvil Holidays. Ã Sunvil online offers a different service to Expedia as you canÃ¢â¬â¢t book online whereas they offer a variety of holidays around the world. You can either book by phone or request to order a brochure. Sunvil have been operating holidays since 1970. They also offer unique tailor made travel options. This is what makes it ideal and appealing to potential costumers. Another technological development is e-ticketing. Here is the booth in which you enter your details into when you come to the airport. This means you donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a paper ticket which gives you less things to worry about and loose. Once you have booked with the airline, you can check yourself in. this saves on time and is much more efficient. This relates to the ever growing industry of travel and tourism as everything is becoming easier and quicker to do. Making going away much more appealing to the public. (I got this picture form Google search on images. ) Conclusion. Computerised booking systems make it much easier for tourists going on holiday as it creates less hassle. This makes it much more engaging for the public. The technological development therefore relates to the increase of travel and tourism as going on holiday is so much more efficient to the technology. 3. Product Development and Innovation. Holiday camps. In the 1950`s Butlins was very popular and was the main idea for a family holiday. I got this leaflet from:http://www. butlinsmemories. com/6/id77. htm This is the leaflet from the 1950`s which states that this was the `real ` holiday that everyone wanted. This was the case then, when the concept of holidays was restricted to only the UK. Nine UK camps were built. They can be divided into three distinct eras: The pre-war camps of Skegness (1936) & Clacton (1938), the wartime camps of Filey, Pwllheli and Ayr and the post-war camps of Mosney (1948), Bognor (1960), Minehead (1962) and Barry (1966). There were already quite a few holiday camps in existence but Billy Butiln took the concept to a whole new level by making them far bigger and by offering a previously unheard of range of entertainment and activities. The Butlin camps were really in a league of their own and were far larger than anything seen before or since. In the drab post-war years of mainland Britain the camps promised and delivered a world far removed from anything most people had experienced before. The brightly coloured buildings with exotic names, the seemingly endless list of entertainment and activities, the wonderful flower gardens, and all available for the equivalent of a weeks pay. Now Butlins has now become less popular as more people want to go abroad on long haul holidays as flights and accommodation is so cheap. Although, Butlins is trying to re-launch itself. It offers a range of cheap holiday with savings that will hopefully bring people back to enjoy the Butlin experience. As you can see from the screen print, the prices are low and are appealing to families to single adults looking for a good night entertainment also. I got this screen picture from: http://www. butlinsonline. co. uk/ Ã Whereas Butlins was aimed at the working class, the new genre of holiday camps are aimed at the middle class. These camps include Centre Parcs and Oasis. Ã These camps offers accommodation suitable to the size of your family. The chalets are set into woodland making it very private. The main centre building offers everything from restaurants and bars to swimming pools all under one roof. Everything is very much more sophisticated than Butlins and is suited to families rather than single people. The family is a main target for travel and tourism and so centre parcs is making the most of the money that families have by accommodating for them. I got this screen print from: http://www. centerparcs. co. uk/ Ã This screen print gives information on the resort and sells their concept well. Package holidays. * Package holidays developed in the 1960`s when jet travel was in force and people had more holiday time due to the holiday pay act by the government.