Wednesday, September 4, 2019
Spain :: essays research papers
Population The Spanish people are essentially a mixture of the indigenous peoples of the Iberian Peninsula with the successive peoples who conquered the peninsula and occupied it for extended periods. These added ethnologic elements include the Romans, a Mediterranean people, and the Suevi, Vandals, and Visigoths (see GOTHS), Teutonic peoples. Semitic elements are also present. Several ethnic groups in Spain have kept a separate identity, culturally and linguistically. These include the Basques (Euskal-dun), who number about 2.5 million and live chiefly around the Bay of Biscay; the Galicians, numbering about 2.5 million, who live in northwestern Spain; and the nomadic Spanish Gypsies (Gitanos; see GYPSIES). Population Characteristics The population of Spain (1991) was 38,872,268. The estimate for 1993 was 39,207,159; the overall density was about 78 people per sq km (about 201 per sq mi). Spain in increasingly urban with more than three-fourths of the population in towns and cities. "Spain," Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation. Forestry and Fishing The cork-oak tree is the principal forest resource of Spain, and the annual production of cork, more than 110,000 metric tons in the mid-1980s, is second only to that of Portugal. The yield of Spain's forests is insufficient for the country's wood-pulp and timber needs. The fishing industry is important to the Spanish economy. The annual catch was about 1.5 million metric tons in 1990 and consisted primarily of tuna, squid, octopus, hake, sardines, anchovies, mackerel, blue whiting, and mussels. Mining The mineral wealth of Spain is considerable. In 1990 annual production included about 36 million metric tons of coal and lignite, 1.5 million tons of iron ore, 255,000 tons of zinc concentrates, 58,400 tons of lead, 5 million tons of gypsum, and 795,000 tons of crude petroleum. The principal coal mines are in the northwest, near Oviedo; the chief iron-ore deposits are in the same area, around Santander and Bilbao; large mercury reserves are located in AlmadÃ ©n, in southwestern Spain, and copper and lead are mined in Andalusia. Other minerals produced are potash, manganese, fluorite, tin, tungsten, wolfram, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, and rock salt. Manufacturing Among the leading goods manufactured in Spain are textiles, iron and steel, motor vehicles, chemicals, clothing, footwear, ships, refined petroleum, and cement. Spain is one of the world's leading wine producers, and the annual output in the late 1980s was about 2.3 million metric tons. The iron and steel industry, centered in Bilbao, Santander, Oviedo, and AvilÃ ©s, produced about 13.