Monday, September 2, 2019
In 1199 Richard died, and John claimed the throne of England. He was accepted by Normandy, and his mother secured Aquitaine, but his claim to the rest was in trouble. He had to fight and negotiate and he was challenged by his nephew Arthur. In concluding peace, Arthur kept Brittany (held from John), while John held his lands from the King of France, who was recognised as JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s overlord on the continent, in a manner greater than was ever forced out of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s father. This would have a crucial impact later in the reign. However, historians who have cast a careful eye over JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s early reign have identified a crisis had already begun: many nobles distrusted John because of his previous actions, and doubted whether he would treat them correctly. The marriage to Isabella of Gloucester was dissolved because of alleged consanguinity, and John looked for a new bride. He found one in the form of another Isabella, heiress to AngoulÃ ªme, and he married her as he tried to involve himself in the machinations of the AngoulÃ ªme and Lusignan family. Unfortunately Isabella had been engaged to Hugh IX de Lusignan and the result was a rebellion by Hugh and the involvement of French King Philip II. Had Hugh married Isabella, he would have commanded a powerful region and threatened JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s power in Aquitaine, so the break benefitted John. But, while marrying Isabella was a provocation to Hugh, John continued to snub and anger the man, pushing his rebellion. In his position as French King, Philip ordered John to his court as he could any other noble who held lands from him, but John refused. Philip then revoked JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s lands and a war began, but this was more a move to strengthen the French crown than any vote of faith in Hugh. John began by capturing a ma... ...ution. These talks took place at Runnymede, and on June 15 1215 agreement was made on the Articles of the Barons. Later known as Magna Carta, this became one of the pivotal documents in English, and to some extents western, history. In the short term, Magna Carta lasted just three months before the war between John and the rebels continued. Innocent III supported John, who struck back hard at the baronÃ¢â¬â¢s lands, but he rejected a chance to attack London and instead wasted the north. This allowed time for the rebels to appeal to Prince Louis of France, for him to gather an army, and for a successful landing to take place. As John retreated north again rather than fight Louis he fell ill and died. This proved a blessing for England as the regency of JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s son Henry were able to reissue Magna Carta, thus splitting the rebels into two camps, and Louis was soon ejected.