Tuesday, April 2, 2019
Solar Water Heating Systems
solar irrigate Heating bodysSolar capacity is the source of heartiness which is now in enforce all everywhere the world. Different companies and researchers be introducing bleak paths and method to uptake the solar nil. The usage of petrol and natural imaginativenesss be non only insidious to the surround but they effect the economic situations as well so it is necessary for ein truth ground and for e precise body to have election sources of postal code. That is why evolution countries ar specially putting efforts to enhance the consume of solar free slide fastener. Other assorted sectors similar ho single-valued function hold employ and car industry is excessively doing research to get as some benefits from the solar zero as possible. Solar button is in any case utilise for liquid pussy oestrus strategys. These organisations ar so flexible that they could both be go for indoor and outdoor limpid syndicates. These arrangements could be builded both in the cold z nonp arils as well as in the springy z cardinals.Solar establish systems atomic number 18 electronically get the hangled and different sensors be installed in the system to keep the temperature of fluid kitty at adjustable temperature rage. If the endure is hot sensors will allow the body of urine system to bypass without rageing into the swimming pool and if the weather is cold sensors direct the valve to enclose course. Solar systems argon similarly use in down the stairs ground oestrus system systems to inject hot peeing for the cornerst mavin usage.The aim behind this project is to aim of speech the solar high temperature system which usher out effectively improve the use of solar faculty. The system should be cost effective in such(prenominal) a appearance that it could be intimately utilize in homes. The talent of passion system should more than normal systems apply in market. System should be differentiated into the circumstancess in such a way that it could be used in m whatever ways. If some body wants to use the system in automatic configuration or in manual(a) configuration both could be comfortably installed and operated. The system could be easily adjusted in hybridization mode mode either to put out on electric violence or solar zippo. The whole system could be configured automatically in such a way that a simple lay man could to a fault use the system by studying the manual. alone move of system should be easily available in the market and should be cheap that if some one wants to re rear end any of the part he could easily get the part and install in the finical place. The system should not work in such a way that if one part is not operating(a) whole system should not stop its working although certain parameters would in spades disturb in that field of study for sample if the disturb sensor is not working properly the temperature of piddle could raise but will not exceed too much as fixed level is programmed in control to stop the system.2. HISTORYThe solar vim was explored in 1950. The emphasise of use of solar energy is joined to space engine room. The need of energy system was felt for the satellite system, because for the continuous source of energy the solar energy was considered to be the best possible solution in the space. In early era the solar energy was used with the help of slow pans. As the contraband color absorbs maximum heat so the black pots and pans were used to heat water. The solar cell possibly can exchange small part of temperatenessniness light into the energy. The best rate of dexterity of solar cells is 180%. Most wide use of solar energy systems is water heating, cooling system and energy for space technology.3. SOLAR zilchSolar energy is the energy radiated from the sun. The solar is related to the sun. The components of solar energy atomic number 18 light from the sun and also the heat from the sun. The sun is providing energy to the humans and different(a) creature from very long magazine. The proficient innovations atomic number 18 occurring day by day and the use of solar energy is increase harmonize to the technological innovation.There are so legion(predicate) part on the priming where the day cartridge holders are longer and sun remain 16 ours in whole of 24 hours. Heat in those areas is so strong that lot of energy could be extracted out from the sun light and heat by development special equipment and advance technology.As the strength resources and oil resources are getting scarce on the earth every country is in the search of finding the new resource of power generation that could replace the use of oil and gas. Every country is striving to achieve fruitful results in the first place the oil resources obsolete. They are also toilsome to use the secondary solar resources of power which are rock power and wind. The solar energy used by human be is very small as com pared to total energy daily locomote on the earth. The solar energy absorbed by the earth breeze in one hour is more than the total energy used by the whole world in one year. According to the facts and figure it is nearly 3,850,000 EJ per year which is absorbed in the earth atmosphere.4. CATOGARIES OF SOLAR zipperThere are two basic categories of solar energy one is the active solar energy and other(a) is the passive solar energy. alive(p) solar energy means the extraction of solar energy cast of characters the photo vanadiumaic cell and after solar cells electrical energy is generated and used for different thinks. Other category is passive solar energy and it is used by orienting the buildings in certain directions and from light dispersing properties. Hybrid forms of energies are also used in many areas where the solar and other sources of energies are used instead.5. DESCRIPTIONThe core of sun is the main source of solar energy, where the fusion reaction is occurring e very time and huge amount of energy is released and the estimated amount is 3.86 x 1026 joules per second. The part of energy which the earth receives is 174 PW of all solar radiations. Thirty percent is reflected back towards the space.6. BENEFITS OF SOLAR aughtThe solar energy has many benefits and these are al roughly uncountable. Some of these are under mentioned.It is the source of energy which is in huge quantity and in that respect is no point of scarcity because the all the systems on the earth are inter- bloodsucking. Every living creature is dependent on the light and energy of the sun. Plants can not grow without the sun light and human and animals can not survive without the plants and sun light.Solar energy is not like other sources of energy which is harmful to the atmosphere and living creature. It is milieu intimate and solar cells do not release any remnants in the air.Solar sells are very cheap and therefore solar energy is the cheapest energy and requires no m aintenance cost for the long time.Solar energy is ego sufficient for the household and for some other activities and does not require any dependence on other resources.7. USES OF SOLAR ENERGYWith the advancement of technology and research on the solar energy has magnificently increased the use of solar energy in different sectors. Industry is also trying to cash this resource of cheap energy in its different sectors. The example of the industrial use is installing the solar panels at the remote sites where other power sources are not available and hung cost is required to realise power generating stations on those sites industries establish solar energy units and setup with relatively less cost and use the energy for different applications. indicant stations and power lines are tried to be installed on the place where there are significant number of people living around because without this the price of installation could not be achieved. besides in representative of solar ener gy the small setup could be installed even for one home in the remote areas. And this installation does not require very huge amount to be spent.In telecommunication sectors it is tried to cater service at each and every corner although it is not possible but companies install lot of sites to strengthen the network connections. So the sites where no power lines are available solar energy systems are installed to give power to the remote sites.Solar energy is also used for the foretoken purpose for the transportation and for the offshore navigation light houses. Solar system is also used as hybrid give the sack system in the cars. Lot of companies is manufacturing hybrid fuel system cars like corolla hybrid. In case of any problem the car could be straight switched to the solar based energy system.Solar energy is also used in the home appliances and researchers are doing research to efficiently use solar energy. In many countries solar energy is water heating system and sewerage discussion plants. The roofs of buildings are made of solar cells and energy is stored in the batteries.8. METHODS OF STORAGE commonly solar energy is tried to collect and use at the like time. In certain conditions where the hybrid systems are installed solar energy is stored for the use at appropriate time. As the solar energy is non-constant form of energy and it is stored. It is available only for the certain duration of time and for the other time stored energy could be used.The most common method of storing solar energy is batteries. Large batteries are attached with the solar panels with the help of charging circuitry to store the charge. These batteries are of two types1. Nickel cadmium2. Lead irate batteriesLead acid batteries are cheap and for the storage purpose these batteries are mostly used. But there life time is less than the nickel cadmium batteries, these batteries demean more electricity.Zeolite mineral is also used to store the solar energy. lifelike zeolite s could be used to store energy instead of synthetic zeolites.Water and stones are the short duration methods of energy storage. Energy obtained from the sun is directly given to water and stones development certain mediums and used harmonize to postulate in short period of time.Another method of storing solar energy is latent heat storage method. In this method nitrates and sulphates are used to store the energy for the longer period of time.Another system is under earth heat storage system and is usually used in homes for heating water.9. THERMOSOLAR ENERGYThe word thermo solar is self explanatory and means the heat from the solar energy. This is the type of energy consumed in heating the water for the homes and swimming pools. The energy is also used for the climatization of plants and for other applications.10. HEATING locomote POOLSA huge amount of energy is needed to heat up the water of swimming pool. One of the applications of solar energy is also heating the swimming poo l water, although people are also use other methods to warm the water of their swimming pools. But according to the new technological innovation solar energy is tried to be used for this purpose. Because most of the swimming pools in homes and restaurants are located in open(a) environment where solar light can easily reached so it is feasible to install any solar energy conversion system near the swimming pool. The following solar heating system is similar to the designed work. All the blocks are integrated to make one perfect system. Filters are short designed and lay accurately to block foulness. The solar panel is placed right above the heat money changer to nominate maximum heat to the pipes. Valves are accurately controlled to direct the flow of water in the in demand(p) direction. Sensors are also placed right near the heat exchanger to sense the heat of exchanger and give the direct for gyration of solar panel. Other sensors are exactly placed in the water to feel the temperature of water and give the signal to programmable logic controller for panel rotation and water flow.Figure .Solar heating systemThe old traditional methods of heating swimming pools are expensive and inefficient. Lot of energy resources is wasted in heating swimming pools these resources are natural gas and electricity. Another attempt associated with such system is electrocuting. The heating systems based on electric power are very risky if the people jumping into the swimming pool without checking. These systems are not only dangerous to humans but also to the environment. The pollutants release by such systems effect the environment badly. Modern methods of heating swimming pools allow in the option of retaining the heat into the water by using different sheets and blankets which can store heat for long time. But in case of non sunny days it is difficult for this system to heat the pool water. Keeping in view this condition other sources are alternatively used for h eating purpose. The average temperature needed for heating the pool water is nearly 78 degree Fahrenheit.11. PARTS OF HEATING SYSTEMThe heating system based on the solar energy consists of different parts and these individual parts integrate to make one system and provide cost effective solution for heating. These systems are also given the temperature control facility user can vary the temperature of water in the pool by just adjusting the thermostat.The main integral parts of solar heating system are as followsSolar storage batterySolar accumulator register is the part of heating system which consists of solar cells and the heater integrated with it. The pipes for the flow of water are also attached with the solar collector. So the energy is dissipated by the solar collectors in the form of heat and this heat is directly transferred to the water. The water is then circulated through with(predicate) the pipes and through the filter and is controlled by different valves. Solar co llectors are also of different types and manufactured according to the weather conditions. These are unglazed and glazed UV inhibitors. For enhancing the life of solar collector in the area where use is 24 hours unglazed collectors are used.Figure . Heat exchangerFilterThe function of filter is to make better the water forwards pumping in to the pipes of solar collector where the water is warmed. These filters are so efficient that they remove all debris from the water before pumped up. The filters are fitted at the start where the water is pumped because before entering into the whole system all the land should be distant from the system or no dirt should enter the system because this dirt could be damaging and cause blockage in the pipes. The life thwart of filter depends on the dirt in the water and it varies from area to area. The areas and pools where the dirt in the water is more filters should be changed in less time. mettleThe pumps are performing the main function of f lowing water from one point to the other. Pumps take the water from the swimming pools and after passing through the channels pump again into the swimming pool. This water is heated up. These pumps are given power supply from the solar panels. The idea is kept in view that not huge energy should be lost in this system. So the 12V pumps are usually used to drive the whole system, because the purpose of these pumps is to flow the water at normal pressure. Pumps used in system ensure the maximum heating quality by regulating the water flow.Flow control valveThe flow control valves are used to control the proper flow of water through the pipes and through the channels linked with the solar collectors. The process of flow control is very important because if the water is not properly controlled to flow through the channels and pipes of solar collector and heating section lot of heat could be wasted in the air. These flow valves could be automatic and direct the water in the particular di rection by opening and conclusion. Heat sensors are also installed in some system to celebrate the temperature of water and according to the temperature flow s controlled.The sensor sends the signal to the peremptory unit by detecting the temperature. And controlling unit is used to divert the direction of water flow using pump. Bypass capability is also installed in some system using the flow valves. If the temperature of water in the swimming pool is equal to the temperature of water in the collector, water passes directly into the swimming pool. The flow control valves and other electronic controls are done with the help of programmable logic controllers which would be discussed tho in detail.Figure . Structural diagram12. PLC CONTROLPlc control is very important in term of controlling all the heating systems of swimming pool. The directions of solar panels are needed to be changed after the certain time and which movement of sun to gain maximum energy from sum, so different type of motors is installed to move the solar panels. The solar panels are moved according to the program written in the PLC and all the program is based on the outputs of sensors installed in swimming pools and near the heating system. The motorized valves are also controlled using PLC. The PLC controls the direction of flow of water by opening and closing the valves by taking specific input from the sensors. The movement of solar panels is at two axes but in the circular way. The system could be installed in two different modes.1. OPEN LOOP SYSTEMIn open entwine systems different sensors are giving signal to the programmable logic controller. These sensors include the voltage sensors which are installed to detect if solar panels are giving maximum output voltage or not. The voltage level is given to the linear to digital converters and the digital signal is given to the up-converter chip which converts the digital signal voltage level to the controller compatible. The example of this process is the sensors operate from 0-5 volt range. This voltage level is given to the additive to digital converter which converters the analog signal in digital information. The voltage level of these info bits are also from 0-5 volts. The operating and detecting voltage of programmable logic controllers is 24V. So the data bits are converted in to 24V signal level. Programmable logic controller detects the data and rotates the solar panel by using the motor installed to rotate solar panels. In this way maximum energy is gained and water is heated in the swimming pools.2. CLOSED LOOP SYSTEMIn the closed loop system different sensors are also giving feedback to the programmable logic controller for more precise direction of movement towards the sun. Some sensors are also installed in water to give feed back to the PLC that water is over heated or cold. One of these sensors is PT100. This sensor is normally used to detect the temperature of water. The resistance of sensor v aries with temperature from 100 to 150 ohm for rise in temperature from 0 to 100 degree centigrade. The PLC continuously monitors the feedback and controls the whole system.Figure . Temperature sensor13. in store(predicate) ASPECTSWith the growing trend of resource saving and production of energy the solar energy system are developing rapidly. Researchers and scientists are manufacturing new and new systems to get maximum results and efficiency from the solar based energy systems. maturation countries are keenly observing new sectors where solar energy systems could be used. The companies involved in solar energy sector are developing home based application. These applications are full or partially dependent on the solar energy. These systems include heating systems and power supply of homes. The power supply needed for home require medium power consumption so large solar panels are sufficient to full lodge in energy needs for small homes.Many countries are developing hybrid cars which are based on solar energy and hybrid fuel system. European countries are putting maximum effort to spread the solar energy systems so that people could rely more and more on such systems. They are also trying to lower down the pollutants by using such system as solar energy is environment friendly.