Sunday, March 31, 2019
The Hospitality Industry Of Malaysia
The Hospitality Industry Of MalaysiaAround the world, the cordial reception exertion has been marked by growing at an unprecedented rate . in that respect has increased focus on the cordial reception fabrication as an application of globose dimensions. To daytime, the cordial reception exertion is considered as a successful heavens especially there argon much and to a greater extent consumers look at the smell not merely quantity. Consumers de discontinue not be attr proceeded by merely a large quantity of products offered, unless they result gestate attention to the quality of the products and military portion leaved. Hence, the cordial reception firms put to a greater extent emphasize in guests subscribes and requirements so that the customer will intuitive feeling sate. Dupre and roadway (1997) throw away menti iodind that the historic ability of cordial reception manufacturing to anticipate customer needs has contributed to its successful in global economy.When asking ab break through the components of cordial reception pains, most hatful will give answer of hotels and restaurants. In fact, cordial reception is just like a braggy umbrella. It is a raft-oriented industry and involves employers, employees, and customers. The personal credit line of cordial reception is created when the needs for certain work emerge for people absent from rest home. People may make a motion from one unsophisticated to an impudent(prenominal) one, or travel from one state to an opposite state. They may to a fault travel to a stance nearby their house. Those people need a prop to eat or sleep. That is cordial reception industry which volunteers these dickens distinct assists that satisfy people needs that argon sleep and eat. Thus, under the big umbrella of cordial reception, there argon devil main orbits which included inhabit and provender assistance (Jones, 2002). Hospitality industry has endured the shelter for peo ple staying away from home and leave alones food and beverages for people eating away from home or not prepares their admit meals.Lodging sector involves the provision of facilities for overnight or lifelong cartridge clip works to guests. In the view of most people, lodgement is simply a place for people to sleep. For others, lodging is not just a place to sleep but it also provide pastime and recreation facilities. In other words, lodging sector not just refer to hotels but it is also include lodging with entertainment facility such as cruise ships and spa resort, lodging affiliated with recreation like camping, and also lodging with health care such as assisted support centers. Each customer has different needs and requests towards their place to stay. Therefore, hospitality industry offer many types of lodging to satisfy varying customer preferences figure of speech from budget or economy motel to luxury hotels to extensive resorts.On the other hand, food improvement se ctor involves provision of food and beverages for consumption of patrons. Traditionally, the two main categories in foodservice sectors are commercial and noncommercial foodservice establishments. In commercial foodservice establishments, the preparation and service of food is the primary natural action. Meanwhile, the preparation and service of food is routineary activity for noncommercial foodservice establishments. According to Dupre and Lane (1997), the commercial foodservice operations git be further categorized as stand-alone restaurants, foodservice in spite of appearance a lodging property, clubs, and catering. Meanwhile, the noncommercial foodservice operations are broken d hold further to restaurants within other establishment, eatertainment (combine the concept of eating and entertainment), and excogitational establishment.The hospitality industry has its root lie in social life. It is shaped by society and act ups convinces found on it. The societies often change s in what they need and what they want. Therefore, hospitality will continue changes with the changes in societies. Nowadays, go throughers in hospitality firms go beyond the traditional skills in operation. They need to learn the ability to gain and give immobile respond to the changing world. They should also able to predict the changes in advance. For instance, people now are become increasingly concerned about the environmental issue. Be obtain of this, more and more hospitality firms are aware about this and bring forth increasingly encouraging environmental-friendly practices. They generate adopted some changes in aver that they sewer align themselves as environmentally conscious player.In Malaysia, the hospitality industry has make loved a positive increase consistent with the harvest-feast of global hospitality industry in recent years. In our state, the hospitality industry has become the major pillars of national economy. Zain (as cited in Lean and Chor, 2010) has mettlesomelighted that Malaysia which has bawl outed by 16.4 million visitors in year 2005 has been awarded as the second most visited last in Asia in that year. Tourism arrivals to Malaysia have achieved 23.6 million in year 2009 and have contributed to RM 53.4 billion. The arrivals of tourists have increased 7.2% compared to 2008 (Ministry of Tourism Malaysia, 2009). Despite the slower suppuration of Malaysia economy due to global scotch crisis and concerns regarding H1N1 flu, the tourism industry has rebounded quickly. In 2009, there are approximately 2,373 hotels that contribute to a total elbow room supply of 168,844. Besides, Malaysia hotel occupancy rate in 2009 was at 60.9% (Ministry of Tourism Malaysia, 2009). In addition, hotels in this country have been awarded accolades in world award shows. locomote Pacific Kuala Lumpur International Airport Hotel has voted as the Worlds Leading Airport Hotel for second year running in 2009 (World Travel Awards, 2009). Such a wards show Malaysia hospitality industry has world-class standard.This sphere is conducted to provide in cultivateation for public to have more arrest and increase awareness of Malaysia hospitality. Moreover, the hospitality firms in our country can obtain entropy regarding this industry. They can know about the Malaysia hospitality more thoroughly and use the information for planning and management at national and international levels. This is also can be use as referential framework by schools and institutes to educate and train their students.1.2 Problem instructionHospitality industry is the worlds largest and fastest growing industry. It is one of the major contributors to global economic growth. The hospitality related service has become more and more significance in recent years (Tsaur and Lin, 2004 Barros, 2005). Concurrent with the growth of hospitality industry, it has triggered a complementary need for growth in hospitality information. Thus, search has become an pr imary(prenominal) tool for private and public sectors in this industry to gather information on the hospitality.In addition, the hospitality industry is considered as a hawkish global industry (Claver and Pereira, 2006). This industry is unique since it involves people serve people. The performance of this unique operational strategy can have strong influence on the firms, the employee, and the customers. Therefore, the hospitality firms have to in invoke with the commercialises in terms of recent trends and changes. They need to have thorough extrapolateing of hospitality industry. Through a better understanding of hospitality and understand its uniqueness in our country, the hospitality firms are able to know better about the hospitality and can build competitive strategy.Although there are many research in hospitality, there is little research has been conducted on Malaysian hospitality. People always heard about French service, English service, American service, Thai Serv ice and other services. Each service has its own typical. They have their own way to provide the service. Nevertheless, public is not deport about Malaysia hospitality and its characteristics. Malaysia hospitality does not have a class edge. This study aims to explore the way that hospitality firms in this country to provide the service in Malaysia way.1.3 ObjectivesTo define what Malaysia hospitality concept is and investigates how service is provided in Malaysian way.To identify the difference of Malaysia hospitality from other service and thuslyunderstand about strengths and uniqueness of Malaysia hospitality.To propose Malaysia hospitality.1.4 Research QuestionsHow Malaysia hospitality firms provide service in its own way?What are the characteristics of Malaysian hospitality?What is the attractiveness of Malaysia hospitality?CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Definition of hospitalityThe word hospitality is derived from the Latin hospitis that is origin for hospital and hospice (Barnhart, 1988). The past literatures have shown many meanings of hospitality. Grove (1965) has delineate hospitality as a genial act or practice with sincere and generous get and entertainment of strangers and guests either socially or commercially. Collins Concise English mental lexicon Plus has been sum up the definition of hospitality as almsgiving in welcoming strangers or guests (Hanks, 1989, p. 604) which is considered as the main theme of hospitality from the dictionary definitions from the 1930s to 1999s.Some definition of hospitality is too cosmopolitan to explain it. For instance, hospitality has interpreted by Tideman (1983) as the way that makes the guests feel satisfy and provision of desired quantity and quality of level-headeds and services with satisfactory price for the guests. This definition is too general to explain the definition of hospitality since it is actually can use to define almost any economic activity.Other academic paper has explained definiti on of hospitality in more holistic ways. For instance, Cassee (1983) interpreted hospitality as a harmonious premix of tangible and intangible components food, beverages, beds, ambience and environment, and behaviour of staff (p. xiv). This definition has limited by Cassee and Reuland (1983) to a harmonious mixture of food, beverage, and/or shelter, a animal(prenominal) environment, and the behavior and attitude of people (p. 144). These definitions avoid the problem of conflating definitions of hospitality with the hospitality industry but continue to exhibit the underlying assumption that hospitality is something that is, principally, commercially created for consumption. In the past, hospitality has known as social quantify in western country. When the time passes, hospitality has been explained in a more expound way. When the time passes, hospitality has been explained in a more detail way. According to Gilje (2004), hospitality is a moral imperative, kindliness, civility, and even a legislated duty.2.2 feature of hospitality industryHospitality is a special operational agreement which is considered as people industry. It is a service worry that the hosts provide service to guests who are apart from home (Brotherton, 1999). One of the characteristics of hospitality industry that is stated by Walker (2008) is the operation time of 24 hours a day and 365 days a year for hospitality businesses. Walker (2008) also pointed out that the personnel in hospitality industry have to work longer time when compared to the other industries due to its long hours operation time. The personnel in this industry even need to work during the holiday, while others are sleep together their free time.In operation of hospitality business, many peaks and valleys happen. In a hotel, there are seasonal fluctuations which are months that have spicy, low, or chairman volume of business. In addition, weekly fluctuations also can be seen in hotel. There are differences of bu siness volume between weekdays and weekend. Even in a day, there is actually has peak and valley time. Lots of the customers will patronize the restaurant during the meal period (Lane and Dupre, 1997).The hoteliers as the hospitality providers act as hospitable host and also security officer. It is very punishing to play these two roles due to the unlimited time and public entranceway of a hotel. However, these roles are essential to make the uninvited guests feel welcome and those uninvited guests do not create any security problems. In fact, the hospitality firms make great efforts to bring outstanding customers ecstasy. This not further can lead to loyalty of customers but also profit for the firms (Walker, 2008).In addition, Hepple, Kipps, and Thomson (1990) have mentioned that hospitality consists of both tangible and intangible components. The tangible components are the physical products while intangible components refer to services. Services cannot be touched, seen, tast ed, smelled or heard before being purchased (Lockyer, 2007). Christopher, McDonald, and Wills (1980) have mentioned that products in service industry can produce a series of benefits. However, these benefits cannot be stored for future use. When a hotel does not sell out rooms for certain night, the revenue for those unemployed rooms is lost permanently. Those unoccupied room cannot be stored like other inventory and hence the products provided is considered as perishable (Mullins, 1993).Walker (2008) has explained another characteristic for hospitality industry which is inseparability. Both the host and guests are indispensable in the transaction in hospitality industry (Brotherton, 1999). There is interaction outlast between the hospitality provider and receiver. Lockyer (2007) has recognized that customer-employee contact as part of the product. nodes may dissatisfy with the poor service delivery despite the high quality of food. Customers are also considered as part of produc t. The behaviour of one group of customers such as make loud noise can influence other group.2.3 Components of Hospitality IndustryAccording to Jafari (2003), hospitality comprised of two components which are lodging component and foodservice component.2.3.1 Lodging ComponentLodging sector involves accommodation service which is the provision of facilities for people who stay away from their home (Jones, 2002). According to Chon and Sparrowe (2000), lodging sector is actually can more invent hospitality industry since it offer overnight and even long-term service to customers. In the past, lodging sector just provide the simplest and basic form of accommodation, which has known as bed and breakfast. Over the time, lodging is continually to change to appeal the customers. Nowadays, it is not just a place to sleep, but is increase with washing facilities, comfort facilities, and entertainment facilities (Jones, 2002).2.3.2 Foodservice ComponentJones (2002) has indicated that foodser vice sector is the provision of fodder for those have their meal away from home. Chon and Sparrowe (2000) has highlighted that on-site and commercial foodservices are two elements of foodservice operations. On-site foodservice operations serve people from specific kind of institution which included schools, hospitals, nursing homes, and military. Meanwhile, commercial foodservice operations are different from on-site foodservice since they are open to all customers and compete in free commercialise (Lane and Denise, 1997).2.4 Hospitality as a service businessBusiness in the food service industry is one of the biggest economic contributions towards a country in term of its hospitality system. Service in hospitality could be tangible and intangible where tangible could be the products sell in the market place that can be touch, see, and taste, while intangible could be the unseen service such as food service (Barrows Powers, 2008). It is only can be evaluated by its quality charac teristics. In term of business, service may provide and increase the organizations profit (Friedman, 1970).The goal of business in hospitality industries specially, is to satisfy clients. Barrows and Powers (2008) proposed that business in food service industry must(prenominal) satisfy customer needs for example, they wants least expensive food with enough phase and high quality so that they will loyal towards the organization. Therefore, the hospitality firms must implemented lots of business skills and techniques to maintain old customers and increase new customers (Kozak and Rimmington, 1998).Service in hospitality industry needs to meet customers satisfaction besides making profit and create customer loyalty (Lane and Dupre, 1997). In addition, good image of the hospitality industry would at least depends on the service business provide by the organizations under the hospitality system (Kozak and Rimmington, 1998). Thus, service must be treat as a play process where it will h elp the organization to generate profit, insure high quality, and make every moment count (Lane and Dupre, 1997).2.5 Importance of ServiceGenerally, service play as a significant role in the customer-oriented industry such as hospitality industry. It was argued that the service quality for the hospitality industry was highly competitive in meeting customer satisfaction (Jeong and Oh, 1998). The immenseness of customer service in hospitality is highlighted since that customer ratiocination has a significant implication toward the continuous survival of the business in the market base on the degree of customer satisfaction.Tsang (2011) proposed several factors such as integration, moderation, relationship status, and discipline which impacted on the service performed. It is the responsibilities of the server in performing a quality service and creating a memorable experience for the customer while dining in the food service industry. However, the service quality context might respe ctively divergent for managerial and employee (Ross, 1995).Customer service is the fundamental key factor to success in the hospitality industry despite of keeping the competitive edges. Prompt service is important in meeting the demand of the customer thus creating customers satisfaction. Whereby, it dedicate for expression customer loyalty indirectly and good reputation among the customers. This will so develop good reputation and thus allows spreading of positive word-of-mouth which enables attraction of new patronages. For ensuring the continuous survival in this highly competitive industry, the return of the customers is essential. Instead of that, attentiveness and passionate of the staff and server are also the essence of a good quality service in meeting the customer needs and demands. Mavondo and Nasution (2008) reported that the delivery of customer nurture should be emphasized in assuring customer expectation and need are met. Undeniably, customer satisfaction tends t o be higher whenever the service provided beyond the customers expectation.A good service usually associated with better customer relationship. Establishing good customer relationship is vital particularly to the hospitality industry. Satisfaction toward quality of service received significantly brings in effect on the business performance in which a good service quality will in turns leads to customers repetitive patronage (Su, 2004). intentioning quality service has gradually evolved becoming an important issue in particular in the hospitality industry.The service quality should be continuous and consistence. The first time visit of customer in experiencing the service will definitely affect the decision for their patronage in the future. Nice service experience will lead to retain regular customer as well as create more business. On the other hand, bad service experience cause towards complaints, negative word-of-mouth, lower satisfaction, and reputation loss.CHAPTER 3 METHODO LOGY3.1 Research DesignThis study aims to explore Malaysia hospitality, in which the service provided in Malaysia own way. It is considered as an exploratory study since there is little research previously through with(p) on the Malaysia hospitality (Jennings, 2001). The manner used in this research is qualitative method. Jennings (2001) has suggested that qualitative method is applied in exploratory study because of the flexibility of entropy collection approaches. Furthermore, this type of study is not based on random sample and representation of a studys population. Moreover, qualitative method is used to explore the perspectives, experiences, attitudes, and belief of the respondents (Holloway, 1997).3.2 SubjectThe target population in this study is the industry experts in hospitality industry. They included the managers of hotels and restaurants. 15 managers of four or five star hotels and restaurants are selected. As they have rich friendship and experience in field of ho spitality, they can give their perceptions and opinion towards Malaysia hospitality.3.3 try out SiteThis study will be carried out around Klang Valley. It is comprised of Kuala Lumpur and towns in Selangor. Hence, Klang Valley can be considered as the main city in Malaysia. It is the place that most of the tourists from other countries and even local residents will visit. Moreover, the hospitality industry in Klang Valley has grown extensively. Thus, Klang Valley is chosen as the sampling site.3.4 Sampling procedureThe sampling method used in qualitative research must provide information-rich selective information and serve the design of in-depth understanding (Altinay and Paraskevas, 2008). Thus, judgment sampling is used in this study. Judgment sampling is often used in qualitative investigation. The samples are chosen based on their expertise in the research topic who can provide information required (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).3.5 Data Collection Method consultation method is c onducted since exploratory research can be studied by oppugning individuals (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). Interview method provides access to experience and knowledge, and gives an opportunity to explore the issue investigated (Altinay and Paraskevas, 2008). The interview involves data collection through face-to-face interaction. By face-to-face interview, the communicatory cues from the respondents can be noticed. The respondents facial expression and body language are observed for better interpretation of the views (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009).In addition, the interview technique of formless interviews is chosen. In this technique, the interviewer has some broad questions related to the issue studied in the interview guide (Jennings). By unstructured interviews also, rich data and three-ply descriptions of the world being studied can be collected. Open-ended questions are used in this research. Crowther and Lancaster (2008) have noted that open-ended questions are commensurate f or interview method as they can provide deeper insights responses and richer information.3.6 Instrument breedingA list of interview questions needs to be developed. According to Creswell (2003), the data collection of qualitative research should be conducted in the natural background which always refers to the home or office of the respondents. Hence, interview will be conducted in the office of manager in the hotel or restaurant. Due to this, there is a need for the permission of interview.Information from the respondents is recorded by written notes and audio taping during the interview (Creswell, 2003). According to Crowther and Lancaster (2008), the electronic device is used to record the interview in order to record the whole interview for future reference.3.7 Data AnalysisWalsh (2003) has noted that qualitative data summary involves summarize the data and then identify related themes and patterns. Data simplification is the first step in qualitative data analysis since qu alitative data collection collects large number of data. It can be through through coding and categorization (Sekaran and Bougie, 2009). The data collected is categorized and transcript. Moreover, a coding scheme is created to organize concepts (Walsh, 2003).According to Sekaran and Bougie (2009), the second step is data display. In this step, the reduced data is presented in an organized mode. Maps, charts, matrices, graphs, or diagrams can be used to find out the existence pattern. Conclusion draft is the last step in data analysis. Qualitative theory is infer by explaining the observed pattern and relationships, or comparing data against other data.CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONAs a conclusion, we hope that rich information can be obtained by interview the manager in hospitality firms during data collection time. By interpreting that information, we can have a clear concept about Malaysia hospitality. Hence, Malaysia hospitality can be defined clearly through this study. This study is use ful for public and hospitality firms in knowing the details and understands about the service provided in Malaysia. When the hospitality firms understand about the Malaysia hospitality, they can provide service in Malaysia way.